VCU Collection and Analysis of Personal Data on A Global Scale Literature Review

DescriptionLITERATURE REVIEW INSTRUCTIONS
Due: April 23, 2023
Points: 250
GOAL: The literature review is a complex genre, and the goal is to practice most of the
learning outcomes of the course. As you prepare for and write the literature review, you
will:



Synthesize scholarly, academic, professional, government, and non-expert,
reputable sources.
Practice writing the academic genre of the literature review to organize and
integrate your own ideas with reputable sources, in order to suggest an
intervention, a solution, or an area that requires further research. You will be
establishing an exigence and writing with a speci c purpose in mind.
Write for a speci c audience (stakeholder) that can make decisions about your
suggestion or recommendation. You will be making a new o ering.
The literature review is an academic genre, used by academics and often by proposal
writers to collect and synthesize sources. The literature review serves di erent
purposes; in this case, the main goal of the literature review is to help you think about
your topic in complex, nuanced ways and to explore and incorporate scholarly
conversations into the argument you will be making for the nal project, the advocacy
letter.
The literature review is a transitional document you will use to investigate your topic as
it is discussed in academic and expert discourses and to formulate your own ideas and
arguments about the topic.
Although you will be using the literature review as a transitional genre, the literature
review is a complex genre that requires time, e ort, and focus. The literature review will
be developed over eight weeks, and you must use every week to collect and annotate
sources, and to integrate those sources. We will work on those skills as you move
towards the deadline. The literature review is the core assignment of the course,
because it is the most complex to write.
You will have the opportunity to revise the literature review. To be eligible to revise the
literature review, you must submit the nished product on time. The nished product
must be complete. No drafts will be graded.
INSTRUCTIONS:
Choosing sources
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The main concern for most students is the number of required sources. The research
logs are designed to help you collect enough sources to have a good sense of your
A literature review of this scope, generally becomes stronger with about 6-8
highly credible, interconnected sources. That means, that at a minimum, you will
have collected and evaluated 24-32 sources. You will discard the sources you do not
need, rather than hoping you nd enough sources.
You will use the number of sources you need to make a cohesive, coherent review of
the current literature in your topic of interest. For this literature review, the normal range
in sources is 6-20 sources, depending on the topic, arguments, need for supporting
evidence, need for background and context sources, need for caveat, qualifying,
pushback sources.
The sources you choose should help you establish an exigence (a problem that needs
to be addressed by a speci c audience) and to make a new o ering (a
recommendation, suggestion, new approach, etc.). You must include scholarly, peer
reviewed sources, since those are the ones deemed most credible by the likely
audiences of a literature review and since they provide robust evidence for most
research questions. We will work on narrowing and re ning your research question over
the course of several weeks.
You will use APA style, unless you prefer to use the style most commonly used in your
eld of study. You are responsible for properly citing sources using established
guidelines.
The role of audience
As part of the literature review, you will write a re ection about the audience
(stakeholder) you are addressing in the literature review. The audience might be similar
or di erent from the audience for the advocacy letter. We will discuss the stakeholder(s)
in more detail throughout the semester.
The role of synthesis
The synthesis is the centerpiece of a literature review, and it can only happen
successfully if you read your sources carefully. Take notes as you read, being mindful of
key terms, the currency of the source, main claims, research methods used, and where
you see possible controversies emerging.
To write the synthesis, begin by grouping various sources according to how they are
similar and di erent. As you do so, be mindful of why these similarities and di erences
exist. Think about how the evidence you found in your sources ts together like pieces
of a puzzle that yield a larger picture of the issue so that you can reach some tentative
conclusions about them and discuss those implications.
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The role of the complex thesis
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topic and to be able to narrow your research question. A good guideline is that you
should have read and evaluated at least four times the sources you will eventually use.
The purpose is generally the thesis for a literature review. The thesis for a literature
review operates di erently from one used in an argument paper. Here is an example of
a weak and strong thesis for a literature review:
• WEAK: The current trend for treating depression combines medication and
cognitive behavioral therapy.
• STRONG: Though cognitive behavioral therapy is used in treating
depression, more research is needed about expanding patient access to these
treatments in underserved populations.
The “weak” thesis will lead to a literature review that summarizes sources one by one;
the “strong” thesis will require a synthesis of research already done about treating
depression that shows where more might be done about improving patient access to
such treatments.
Thus, the literature review is never an end in itself; it synthesizes important information
that not only answers your research question, but also takes a stand on what should
happen next to solve the problem you identi ed, address a gap in the existing
research, or to improve/change current practices in a eld or profession.
Writing the literature review
The literature review will vary in length. I would expect carefully read sources to result
in at least three single-spaced pages of synthesis, including the introduction and the
conclusion. Some students write longer literature reviews. The length of the literature
review depends entirely on the types of sources and the resulting arguments that
emerge from synthesizing those sources.
Literature reviews are organized around ideas, not the sources themselves. Those
ideas should derive from the focus, or purpose, you establish. To establish that focus,
you must read your sources thoroughly, take notes, and look for patterns that you see
that address your reason or purpose for writing the review.
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GRADING CRITERIA: The literature review will be graded based on how well it
establishes a purpose and an exigence, and on how well it makes a new o ering to a
speci c stakeholder. The literature review must show synthesis of interconnected
sources, multiple perspectives and aspects of a narrowly de ned issue, and adherence
to a citation style. The literature review must adhere to the genre conventions, including
use of headers and subheaders, concise language, multiple sources.
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Patrick Power Library
Literature Review
What is a Literature Review?
A literature review is a survey and discussion of the literature in a given area of study. It is a
concise overview of what has been studied, argued, and established about a topic, and it is usually
organized chronologically or thematically. A literature review is written in essay format. It is not
an annotated bibliography, because it groups related works together and discusses trends and
developments rather than focusing on one item at a time. It is not a summary; rather, it evaluates
previous and current research in regard to how relevant and/or useful it is and how it relates to
your own research.
A Literature Review is more than an Annotated Bibliography or a summary, because you are organizing
and presenting your sources in terms of their overall relationship to your own project.
Purpose
A literature review is written to highlight specific arguments and ideas in a field of study. By
highlighting these arguments, the writer attempts to show what has been studied in the field, and
also where the weaknesses, gaps, or areas needing further study are. The review should
therefore also demonstrate to the reader why the writer’s research is useful, necessary,
important, and valid.
Audience
Literature reviews can have different types of audiences, so consider why and for whom you are
writing your review. For example, a lot of literature reviews are written as a chapter for a thesis or
dissertation, so the audience will want to know in what way your research is important and
original. Highlighting the gap in knowledge which your research aims to fill is particularly
important in this instance because you need to convince the reader that there is an opening in the
area of study. A literature review in a proposal will similarly try to convince the audience of the
significance and worthiness of the proposed project. In contrast, when you are writing a literature
review for a course, your professor may want you to show that you understand what research has
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been done, giving you a base of knowledge. In this case, you may not need to focus as much on
proving where the gaps in knowledge lie, but rather, that you know what the major areas of study
and key ideas are.
Questions a Literature Review Should Answer:
Asking questions such as the following will help you sift through your sources and organize your
literature review. Remember, the literature review organizes the previous research in the light of
what you are planning to do in your own project.
What’s been done in this topic area to date? What are the significant discoveries, key
concepts, arguments, and/or theories that scholars have put forward? Which are the
important works?
On which particular areas of the topic has previous research concentrated? Have there
been developments over time? What methodologies have been used?
Are there any gaps in the research? Are there areas that haven’t been looked at closely yet,
but which should be? Are there new ways of looking at the topic?
Are there improved methodologies for researching this subject?
What future directions should research in this subject take?
How will your research build on or depart from current and previous research on the topic?
What contribution will your research make to the field?
Length
The length of a literature review varies depending on its purpose and audience. In a thesis or
dissertation, the review is usually a full chapter (at least 20 pages), but for an assignment it may
only be a few pages.
Structure
There are several ways to organize and structure a literature review. Two common ways are
chronologically and thematically.
Chronological: In a chronological review, you will group and discuss your sources in order of
their appearance (usually publication), highlighting the changes in research in the field and your
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specific topic over time. This method is useful for papers focusing on research methodology,
historiographical papers, and other writing where time becomes an important element. For
example, a literature review on theories of mental illness might present how the understanding of
mental illness has changed through the centuries, by giving a series of examples of key
developments and ending with current theories and the direction your research will take.
Thematic: In a thematic review, you will group and discuss your sources in terms of the themes or
topics they cover. This method is often a stronger one organizationally, and it can help you resist
the urge to summarize your sources. By grouping themes or topics of research together, you will
be able to demonstrate the types of topics that are important to your research. For example, if
the topic of the literature review is changes in popular music, then there might be separate
sections on research involving the production of music, research on the dissemination of music,
research on the interpretation of music, and historical studies of popular music.
No matter which method you choose, remember: Within each section of a literature review, it is
important to discuss how the research relates to other studies (how is it similar or different, what
other studies have been done, etc.) as well as to demonstrate how it relates to your own work.
This is what the review is for: don’t leave this connection out!
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RESEARCH LOG 3
ZECHARIAH KIKULE
Academic Sources (Peer-Reviewed) About Your Research Question
Due March 12, 2023
One or two sentences, describe the current, unresolved issue in your field that you are
researching. The issue must have arisen within the last two years.
The current, unresolved issue in the field of cybersecurity is the increasing number of
cyber-attacks targeting critical infrastructure, including hospitals, power grids, and financial
systems, particularly in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. These attacks are becoming
more sophisticated and frequent, posing significant threats to national security and public
safety.
In
YOUR FIELD OF STUDY: Cyber-security
ISSUE: Information and Security challenges faced as a result of technology advancements.
Enter the current narrowed version of your research question. Make sure it asks a “how”
or “why” question.
RESEARCH QUESTION: How can we balance security and privacy in the age of big data and
surveillance?
Enter the following information for each of your sources from a reputable peer-reviewed
(scholarly) journal. Aim for articles published within the last five years, and make sure
at least two of them are from peer-reviewed journals in your field of study.
SOURCE 1
Title of article: Privacy, Security, and Governance Challenges of Big Data for Smart Grid
Title of journal (not the publisher) that published the article: IEEE Communications Surveys
and Tutorials
Author Name(s): M. Ali Babar Abbasi, Sajid Hussain, Muhammad Rizwan Asghar
Date article was published: 2021
Copy and paste the article’s abstract here: In the last few years, the usage of smart grid systems
has increased significantly. Smart grid systems are designed to facilitate energy-efficient and
reliable power delivery. With the advent of these smart grid systems, the amount of data
generated has increased exponentially. Big data analytics is used to analyze this data, which
helps to enhance the system’s efficiency and reduce the cost of energy. However, along with
these benefits come various challenges, such as security and privacy issues. This article
provides a comprehensive review of the privacy, security, and governance challenges
associated with big data for smart grid systems. The article also highlights the existing solutions
to overcome these challenges.
Name of specific library database you used to find the sources: IEEE Xplore
Key search terms used to find the source: Big data, privacy, security, smart grid
New key terms: governance, challenges, solutions
Main findings this study produced (main argument): This article provides a comprehensive
review of the privacy, security, and governance challenges associated with big data for smart
grid systems. The authors highlight the importance of balancing security and privacy issues
with the need for efficient and reliable energy delivery. The article also suggests various
solutions to overcome these challenges, such as using encryption techniques and access control
mechanisms.
Important quotes from the source: “The usage of smart grid systems has significantly increased
in recent years. Big data analytics is used to analyze the data generated by these smart grids,
which enhances their efficiency and reduces the cost of energy. However, along with these
benefits come various challenges, such as security and privacy issues.”
Connection to other sources in Research Log 3: This source provides an overview of the
privacy and security challenges associated with big data and its analysis in smart grid systems.
It helps to contextualize the privacy and security issues faced in the broader landscape of big
data and its usage.
SOURCE 2
Title of article: Balancing Privacy and Utility in Cross-Organizational Data Sharing: A GameTheoretic Approach
Title of journal (not the publisher) that published the article: IEEE Transactions on Information
Forensics and Security
Author Name(s): Y. Xu, X. Wang, J. Huang, and J. Wang
Date article was published: January 2021
Copy and paste the article’s abstract here:
“Cross-organizational data sharing has been a promising way to improve service quality and
reduce costs, but privacy issues are always critical concerns. One of the main reasons is the
threat of a data breach that could lead to an information leak. A natural way to address the
privacy issue is to anonymize sensitive information, and a popular mechanism is k-anonymity.
However, the existing k-anonymity mechanism cannot balance the privacy and utility well. In
this paper, we study the problem of balancing privacy and utility in cross-organizational data
sharing, and propose a game-theoretic approach that can handle the tradeoff between them.
Specifically, we first introduce the data sharing game between data providers and service
providers, and model it using a Stackelberg game. Then, we derive the optimal strategy for the
data providers and service providers, and show that the strategy can achieve a good balance
between privacy and utility. Finally, we conduct experiments on real datasets to evaluate the
performance of our proposed method. The results demonstrate that our method outperforms the
state-of-the-art k-anonymity mechanism in both privacy and utility.”
Name of specific library database you used to find the sources: IEEE Xplore Digital Library
Key search terms used to find the source: cross-organizational data sharing, privacy, gametheoretic approach
New key terms: k-anonymity, Stackelberg game, data providers, service providers
Main findings this study produced (main argument): This study proposes a game-theoretic
approach to balance privacy and utility in cross-organizational data sharing. By modeling the
data sharing process as a Stackelberg game, the authors show that the proposed approach can
achieve a good balance between privacy and utility. Experiments on real datasets demonstrate
that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art k-anonymity mechanism in both
privacy and utility.
Important quotes from the source: “In this paper, we study the problem of balancing privacy
and utility in cross-organizational data sharing, and propose a game-theoretic approach that can
handle the tradeoff between them.” “By modeling the data sharing process as a Stackelberg
game, we show that the proposed approach can achieve a good balance between privacy and
utility.” “The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms the stateof-the-art k-anonymity mechanism in both privacy and utility.”
Connection to other sources in Research Log 3: This source is related to Source 1 because both
discuss the challenge of balancing privacy and utility. However, Source 1 focuses on the
balance between security and privacy in the age of big data and surveillance, while Source 2
specifically discusses the issue of balancing privacy and utility in cross-organizational data
sharing.
SOURCE 3
Title of article: Cybersecurity implications of remote working: A review of literature
Title of journal (not the publisher) that published the article: Information & Management
Author Name(s): Tiong, R. L. K., & Ngo, D. C. L.
Date article was published: 2021
Copy and paste the article’s abstract here: The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed the
workplace, and remote working is becoming an integral part of business operations. This
transformation has resulted in a shift in the risk landscape of organizations, requiring them to
deal with new and intensified cybersecurity threats. Drawing on a systematic review of the
literature, we identified and synthesized the existing research on cybersecurity implications of
remote working. We analyze the current landscape and present a thematic synthesis of the
extant literature to identify the key cybersecurity challenges that organizations are facing due
to remote working. We also discuss the potential implications of remote working for
cybersecurity practice, policymaking, and research. Our study contributes to the literature by
providing a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the cybersecurity implications of remote
working, highlighting the key challenges, and providing recommendations for practice,
research, and policy.
Name of specific library database you used to find the sources: IEEE Xplore Digital Library
Key search terms used to find the source: cybersecurity, remote working, literature review
New key terms: risk landscape, cybersecurity challenges, remote working implications, policy
implications
Main findings this study produced (main argument): This study provides a comprehensive and
up-to-date review of the cybersecurity implications of remote working, highlighting the key
challenges that organizations are facing and providing recommendations for practice, research,
and policy. The main findings indicate that remote working has shifted the risk landscape of
organizations, requiring them to deal with new and intensified cybersecurity threats. The study
identifies the key cybersecurity challenges that organizations are facing due to remote working,
such as phishing attacks, identity theft, and unsecured devices, and discusses the potential
implications of remote working for cybersecurity practice, policymaking, and research.
Important quotes from the source: “Remote working has become an integral part of business
operations and has resulted in a shift in the risk landscape of organizations, requiring them to
deal with new and intensified cybersecurity threats.” (p. 1) “Phishing attacks, identity theft, and
unsecured devices are among the top cybersecurity challenges that organizations are facing due
to remote working.” (p. 9)
Connection to other sources in Research Log 3: This source provides a comprehensive review
of the cybersecurity implications of remote working, which is related to the topic of balancing
security and privacy in the age of big data and surveillance. It also identifies some of the key
cybersecurity challenges that organizations are facing due to remote working, which can inform
strategies for mitigating those challenges.
SOURCE 4
Title of article: Enhancing Privacy Through Contextual Integrity: A Comparative Analysis of
Facebook’s Beacon and Google’s Buzz
Title of journal (not the publisher) that published the article: Journal of Business Ethics
Author Name(s): Alexander N. Vulfson, Karen L. Paullet, and Randall K. Minas
Date article was published: December 2018
Copy and paste the article’s abstract here:
This article uses contextual integrity to analyze Facebook’s Beacon and Google’s Buzz to
determine the reasons for their differing fates. The study shows that contextual integrity is a
viable framework for analyzing technology and highlights its potential usefulness in addressing
current privacy concerns. The contextual integrity framework is especially helpful when
analyzing the use of private information in commercial settings. The framework provides a
basis for evaluating privacy violations and determining the best solutions for preventing them.
The study found that Facebook’s Beacon did not respect contextual integrity and was
abandoned, whereas Google’s Buzz made an effort to respect contextual integrity and was
successful.
Name of specific library database you used to find the sources: JSTOR
Key search terms used to find the source: privacy, contextual integrity, Facebook, Google
New key terms: commercial settings, privacy violations, successful solutions
Main findings this study produced (main argument): The article argues that contextual integrity
is a viable framework for analyzing technology and addressing privacy concerns, especially in
commercial settings. The authors use contextual integrity to analyze Facebook’s Beacon and
Google’s Buzz, showing that Google’s Buzz made an effort to respect contextual integrity and
was successful, while Facebook’s Beacon did not respect contextual integrity and was
abandoned. The study provides a basis for evaluating privacy violations and determining
successful solutions for preventing them.
Important quotes from the source: “The contextual integrity framework is well-suited for
analyzing privacy violations within commercial settings because it takes into account the
specific contexts in which private information is exchanged.”
Connection to other sources in Research Log 3: This source connects to Source 2, which also
examines the concept of contextual integrity and its importance in protecting privacy.
SOURCE 5
Title of article: Balancing Privacy and Security in the Digital Age
Title of journal (not the publisher) that published the article: Journal of International Affairs
Author Name(s): Lora Saalman
Date article was published: April 19, 2018
Copy and paste the article’s abstract here:
The rise of new technologies and information sharing capabilities has created unprecedented
opportunities for global economic, social, and scientific advancement. Yet the transition to the
digital age has created new and complex privacy and security concerns. The ubiquity of
personal data collected by governments, companies, and individuals is placing new strains on
traditional security mechanisms, while state-sponsored hacking is increasingly perceived as a
serious threat to national security. This article explores the evolution of privacy and security as
a conceptual issue and argues that this tension between privacy and security is not only
manageable but is in fact essential to enable broader economic and social benefits.
Name of specific library database you used to find the sources: JSTOR
Key search terms used to find the source: privacy and security, technology advancements
New key terms: state-sponsored hacking, global advancement, privacy concerns
Main findings this study produced (main argument): This article explores the evolution of
privacy and security as a conceptual issue and argues that this tension between privacy and
security is not only manageable but is in fact essential to enable broader economic and social
benefits.
Important quotes from the source: “In the digital age, privacy is no longer simply a question of
controlling access to one’s personal space, but rather of balancing the costs and benefits of
sharing personal data in exchange for access to goods, services, and information that are
integral to daily life,” (Saalman, 2018).
Connection to other sources in Research Log 3: This source offers a different perspective on
how to balance privacy and security. It highlights the importance of balancing privacy and
security in order to enable broader economic and social benefits. This idea is similar to that in
Source 2, which argued that privacy and security need to be balanced to avoid negative
consequences such as social unrest and economic damage.
REFLECTION
Write your reflection by entering your responses directly below each of the following
questions. Aim for two to three sentences only for your responses.
Use examples from the sources. You must name and quote the sources to receive credit
for this response:

What connections can you see among these peer-reviewed (scholarly)sources?
Provide an example.
These peer-reviewed publications cover the subject of artificial intelligence and
its social effects. They talk about the advantages and disadvantages of AI, the moral
issues raised by its creation and application, and the possible long-term effects. For
instance, Source 1 talks about how AI is used in healthcare, whereas Source 3 talks
about how AI is used in education.

How do the sources help you answer your current research question? What new
offerings to the conversation do they provide?
These sources provide a deep understanding of the issue of balancing security
and privacy in the age of big data and surveillance. For example, source 2 discusses the
concept of “privacy by design” and how it can be implemented to address this issue.
Source 3 explores the ethical implications of big data and surveillance and offers new
insights into how we can approach the issue. Source 5 suggests a multi-disciplinary
approach to addressing the issue and highlights the need for collaboration between
different fields, such as law, policy, and technology. These sources can help answer the
research question, “How can we balance security and privacy in the age of big data and
surveillance?”

Can you see connections between these sources and sources that are available to
the public and/or written by experts and posted in publicly available sites? What
is similar? What is different? Specifically, how is a peer-reviewed (scholarly)
journal article different from other genres (describe in terms of audience,
purpose, language, organization, attribution practices, appeals to logos, ethos,
pathos, Kairos**, other)?
To assure accuracy and credibility, scholarly journal articles are normally
prepared for an academic audience and go through a peer-review procedure. In addition
to being separated into numerous sections like introduction, review of literature,
technique, outcomes, and discussion, they typically feature graphs, tables, and charts.
Additionally, they reference and cite many sources to back up their claims. On the other
hand, publicly accessible sources published on websites could not be subject to the
same amount of examination and might be written for a wider audience. They may not
always adhere to a set format and may speak more casually. For example, source 4 is a
peer-reviewed article that discusses the concept of “explainability” in AI. In contrast,
sources available to the public may not undergo the same level of scrutiny and may be
written for a more general audience.

Are you noticing different key terms in the scholarly sources than you found in
previous sources? Provide an example.
Yes, I am noticing different key terms in the scholarly sources compared to previous
sources. For example, Source 2 discusses the concept of “algorithmic bias,” which refers to the
idea that algorithms can perpetuate existing social biases and inequalities. This term is not
commonly used in more general sources on AI. Source 4 discusses the concept of
“explainability” in AI, this refers to an AI system’s capacity to give concise and comprehensible
justifications for its choices and behaviors. This term is not commonly used in more general
sources on AI.
**Kairos is the Greek word for “opportunity,” and in rhetoric, it means the timeliness of
the moment or action. In other words, the “kairotic moment” for a piece of legislation is
when it is being proposed and debated because it is the optimal time to take an action on it.
Once the bill has passed, the Kairos, or timely opportunity, is gone.
SYNTHESIS MATRIX
ZECHARIAH KIKULE
GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY
ENG 302 – SL2
PROF. KRISTINE GUSSOW
APRIL 4TH 2023
Methods
Concept 1:
Security
Concept 2:
Privacy
Concept 3: Big
Data and
Surveillance
Source 1:
Solove, D. J.
(2011)
Literature
Review
“The more
surveillance
there is, the
more privacy is
lost, but the
relationship is
not
symmetrical.”
“Privacy is not
just about
keeping
information
secret, it also
involves
controlling
information.”
“The age of big
data has brought
about new
challenges to
privacy.”
Source 2:
MayerSchönberger
, V., &
Cukier, K.
(2013)
Case
studies
and
examples
“Data-driven
approaches to
security can be
effective, but
they may also
have negative
consequences
for privacy.”
“The
collection and
analysis of
personal data
can reveal
intimate
details about
individuals
and their
behavior.”
“Big data can
enable
surveillance on
an
unprecedented
scale.”
Source 3:
Nissenbaum
, H. (2010)
Ethical
analysis
“Privacy is not
an absolute
value, but must
be balanced
against other
values such as
security and
accountability.”
“Contextual
integrity
offers a
framework for
understandin
g privacy in
different
social
contexts.”
“Big data
analytics raise
new questions
about privacy, as
they can reveal
information that
was previously
unknown or
inaccessible.”
Gaps,
Problems,
Unresolved
Questions,
Notes on
Sources
Solove’s
perspective
focuses
mainly on the
individual’s
right to
privacy, but
does not
address how
to balance
privacy with
the need for
security.
While MayerSchönberger
and Cukier
discuss the
need to
balance
security and
privacy, they
do not
provide clear
guidelines or
strategies for
doing so.
Nissenbaum’s
contextual
integrity
approach
provides a
useful
framework
for analyzing
privacy, but it
may not
provide
concrete
solutions for
balancing
privacy and
security in
practice.
Source 4:
Clarke, R.
(2018)
Conceptua
l analysis
“Privacy is not
just about
secrecy, but
also about
autonomy and
control over
personal
information.”
“Security and
privacy are
not
necessarily in
opposition,
but can work
together to
achieve
common
goals.”
“Big data
presents both
risks and
opportunities for
security and
privacy.”
Source 5:
Agre, P.
(2008)
Critique of
current
policies
“Surveillance
technologies
are often
implemented
without
adequate
consideration of
their social and
political
implications.”
“Privacy is not
just an
individual
concern, but
also a
collective one
that affects
society as a
whole.”
“The use of big
data for
surveillance can
reinforce existing
power
imbalances and
inequalities.”
Clarke
emphasizes
the
importance of
understandin
g privacy as
more than
just secrecy,
but does not
provide
specific
strategies for
balancing
privacy and
security.
Agre’s
critique of
current
surveillance
policies
highlights the
need for
more ethical
and socially
responsible
approaches to
security and
privacy, but
does not
provide clear
strategies for
achieving this.

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