SOSC3043 M – Comparative Perspectives on Social Exclusion and Business


based on your Project Proposal. You will develop social justice oriented, creative and practical research work of 5-pages.
1. Topic: free topic but must be related to the course topics, relevant, very narrow! course topics Comparative Perspectives on Social Exclusion and Business
2. Thesis: clear statement of argument at the outset (ideally in the introduction), novelty!
3. Research: breadth and depth of research focusing on argument.
4. Analysis: critical, interdisciplinary, depth, focus on argument, logic, balance
5. Originality: novelty, insight, thought-provoking.
6. Evidence: primarily scholarly references to support claims; avoid quotations, instead paraphrase authors’ ideas using your own words and citing source.
7. Readings: a minimum of 5 readings from the class kit must be cited. References to course readings do not necessarily have to be central to argument. In part, this requirement is to confirm whether students are familiar with the course materials and class discussions. Outside readings welcome.
Week 2 (Jan 18) – Historical Evolution of Social Exclusion
Galabuzi, Grace-Edward. (2006). Canada’s Economic Apartheid: The Social Exclusion of Racialized Groups in the New Century. Canadian Scholars Press Inc., Toronto. Chapter 1: “Introduction: Emerging Realties and Old Problems.” pp. 1-24.
Week 3 (Jan 25) – The Labour Market and Social Exclusion
Bauder, H. (2003). “Brain abuse”, or the devaluation of immigrant labour in Canada. Antipode, 35(4), 699-717.
Siar, S. V. (2013). From highly skilled to low skilled: revisiting the deskilling of migrant labor.
Week 4 (Feb 1) – Environmental Pollution and Social Exclusion
Robert J., & Shirley R. (2006). Examining Linkages between Race, Environmental Concern, Health and Justice in a Highly Polluted Community of Colour. Journal of Black Studies, 36(4), pp. 473-496.
Week 5 (Feb 8) – Healthcare and Social Exclusion
Paula Braveman (2014). What is Health Equity: And How Does a Life-Course Approach Take Us Further Toward It? Matern Child Health Journal, 18, pp.366–372.
Kitching, G. T., Firestone, M., Schei, B., Wolfe, S., Bourgeois, C., O’Campo, P., … & Smylie, J. (2020). Unmet health needs and discrimination by healthcare providers among an Indigenous population in Toronto, Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 111(1), 40-49.
Week 6 (Feb 15) – Gender and Social Exclusion
Jackson, C. (1999). Social exclusion and gender: Does one size fit all?. The European Journal of Development Research,11(1), pp.125-146.
Week 8 (Mar 1) – Disability and Social Exclusion 
England, K. (2003). Disabilities, gender and employment: social exclusion, employment equity and Canadian banking Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien, 47(4), pp.429-450.
Week 9 (Mar 8) – Social Exclusion and Finances
Duclos, R., Wan, E. W., & Jiang, Y. (2012). Show me the honey! Effects of social exclusion on financial risk-taking. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(1), pp.122-135.
Week 10 (Mar 15) – Social Exclusion and Housing
Smith, Heather and David Ley. (2008) “Even in Canada? The Multiscalar Construction and Experience of Concentrated Immigrant Poverty in Gateway Cities.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 98(3), pp. 686-713.
Week 11 (Mar 22) – Social Exclusion and Culture
Hitti, A., Mulvey, K. L., & Killen, M. (2011). Social exclusion and culture: The role of group norms, group identity and fairness. Anales de psicología, 27(3), pp.587-599.
Week 12 (Mar 29) – Social Exclusion and Anxiety
Søndergaard, D. M. (2012). Bullying and social exclusion anxiety in schools. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 33(3), 355-372.
Week 13 (Apr 5) Development in spite of Social Exclusion
Stoesz, David, Isabella Gutau, and Richard Rodreiguez. (2016). Susu: Capitalizing Development from the Bottom up. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 43 (3), p. 121.
8. Organization: clear structure throughout paper i.e. introduction, development of argument by articulating the key claims with supportive references, conclusion
9. Style: clarity, flow, avoid long sentences and paragraphs, correct citation format (any but be consistent e.g. APA , McGill or the like) and grammar.SOSC 3043 Comparative
Perspectives on Social Exclusion and
Historical Evolution of Social
Canada and Racial Issues
• Canada has become more racially diverse
since the late 20th century and early twentyfirst century
• Prior to that, it used to be the “white nation”
and very Eurocentric.
• Even though it was inhabited by Aboriginals.
• Also, there was the use of oriental labour in
the development of major industries.
Canada and Racial Issues
• From European attempts to take over the land
from Aboriginals, to the importation of African
American, Asian and Caribbean labour to the
most recent casualization of racial immigrant
Immigration in the 20th Century
• Percentage of racialized groups in Canada went from
4% in 1971 to a projected 20% by 2015
• Racialized groups accounted for 69.3% of the
immigrant population in 2021, and the proportion is
even higher among recent immigrants who were
admitted since 2016 (83.0%) {Statistics Canada 2022}.
• The highest intake of racialized people is in Ontario
while PEI has a negative/declining percentage
• Growth of immigration mainly from Asia and the
Middle East, then Africa and Latin America
Immigration and Canada
• Canada’s racialized population are mostly
concentrated in urban areas with the most in
Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal
• Mostly immigrants (68%) and a significant
portion of the immigrant proportion are
Canadian born (32%)
Immigration and the Labour Force in
• Racialized groups make up a significant source
of human resource in the Canadian labour
• 75% of new entrants into the labour force are
Racial Segmentation in Canada
• Canada’s social class emphasizes divisions such as
gender and race.
• Racial segmentation in the labour market feeds
other social issues such as housing,
neighborhood selection, contact to criminal
justice system, health risk and political
• Thus, racializing poverty and intensifying social
exclusion for Canada’s urban-based racialized
group communities.
Canada’s Population Changes Driven
by Labour Needs
• Resource-rich and labour poor Canada meets
its labour shortages by encouraging
• Removal of non-European immigration
restriction in the 1960s.
• However, discriminatory treatment of nonEuropean workers still persists.
Racialized Immigration, Neo-Racism
and Competitive Racism
• Colonialism movement was from North to
South to set up colonies
• Now it is from South to North, a lot of who are
seeking asylum.
• Then we end up with “South in the North”
communities where these immigrants create a
settlement close to the settlements they had
in the South. (e.g. Little India, Little Italy)
Racialized Immigration, Neo-Racism
and Competitive Racism
• Racialized social structures
• Neo-racism refers to the anti-immigration
discourses and policies of people in the North
in response to globalization induced
• The dominant theme is cultural differences
• These cultural differences are also the defense
used to justify cultural segregation positions.
Racialized Immigration, Neo-Racism
and Competitive Racism
• In Europe and North America, the term
“immigrant” is used to refer to non-Whites,
even if they were born in the country.
• In the South, the white immigrants are called
• Even immigrant status has been racialized
Canada’s Political Economy and
Racialized Growing Gap
• Flexible work arrangements by state regulation
and deregulation of the labour market has put
racialized people at a disadvantage, especially
racialized women.
• The increase in precarious work by the end of the
1990s – more temporary staff, contract work and
self-employed people.
• Characteristic of this precarious work include low
pay, no job security, poor and often unsafe
working conditions, intensive labour, excessive
hours and low or no benefits.
Canada’s Political Economy and
Racialized Growing Gap
• Racialized population are concentrated in
precarious labour fields
• The consequences are
• Increased segmentation of the labour market along racial
• The racialization of poverty
• The racialization and segregation of low-income
• Intensifies social exclusion
Neoliberalism and Immigration Effects
• Then there is increased competition from
• This makes racism arise from the competition
brought about by the deregulation of work
arrangements, which drives down wages and
increases exploitation
• Many immigrants started with wages comparably
lower than Canadian born workers.
• The labour of racialized people are devalued
Neoliberalism, Employment Income
and Racialized Groups
• With the adoption of neoliberalism, not only did
income inequality increase, the income gap between
Canadian racialized groups and that of other Canadians
also grew to double digits.
• This is one form of socio-economic exclusion of
racialized groups
• The effects on racialized people include higher poverty
rates, lower civic and political participation, higher
health risks, lower quality housing, intensified
segregation of neighbourhoods, and more contact with
the criminal justice system.
Racialized Groups and Unequal Access
to the Workplace
• The employment gap between racialized groups and
other Canadians shows the unequal access to work
• Immigrants face structural barriers in accessing
• These include barriers such as demands for Canadian experience,
recognition of their skills, denial by provincial licensing bodies for
accreditation for those with trade and professional qualifications, and
the general devaluation of their skills.
• Government policy response includes the federal
employment equity legislation in 1986.
• Neoliberalism does not allow the government act as it
The Racialization of Poverty
• Poverty rates have been especially high
among recent immigrants and this signifies a
failure to translate internationally obtained
skills into equivalent compensation.
• The ripple effect of poverty on housing,
mental health, basic needs, health etc.
• Note that immigrants are increasingly better
Social Inequality: An Issue of Public
• Social inequality is both a social justice and
economic issue
• It is also an issue of public and political
• Inequality matters because the higher the
level of inequality, the higher the probability
of violence and societal disorder.
• Quality of life is lower in unequal societies.
Social Inequality: An Issue of Public
• Studies show that reducing income inequality
reduces mortality rate
• Higher inequality leads to higher homicide
and crime rates
• Cities with greater inequality are less socially
SOSC 3043 Comparative
Perspectives on Social Exclusion and
Week 3 The Labour Market and
Social Exclusion
Immigrant and Deskilling of Labour
• Deskilling is the process of eliminating skilled
• Issue of deskilling and non-recognition of
foreign credentials in Canada for immigrants
• Deskilling occurs when immigrants lose access
to occupations they previously held because
their foreign education and credentials are not
recognized in Canada.
Why Immigrant Labour is Deskilled
• Nonrecognition of their foreign
• The bias for education acquired in the
host country or in academic institutions
in developed countries
• Local experience, cultural know-how
• English proficiency
Immigrant and Deskilling of Labour
• Place of education becomes a mechanism of
labour market distinction (Collins 1979)
• The general idea that immigrants must go
through an adjustment period in the Global
Immigrant and Deskilling of Labour
• Deskilling may be viewed in several ways:
• as a host country’s way of filling up labor scarcities
in the secondary market by exploiting cheap
enclave labor,
• as a transitional phase for migrants to adjust to
the ‘standards’ of the host country, or as a form of
institutionalized discrimination
Deskilling of Labour: Filipino Nurses
Why Deskilling Occurs
– Deskilling happens because there is a
secondary market of lower paying and
lower status jobs which migrants are
willing to accept (Piore’s view).
– deskilling is a complex process that
demonstrates the interplay of race,
ethnicity, and gender in the labor market
participation of skilled migrants.
Deskilling in the Canadian Labour
• The need to have “Canadian Experience”.
• Regulatory institutions actively excluding
immigrants from the upper segment of the
Canadian labour market
• Professional associations and employers
prefer Canadian born and educated workers.
Some Factors Responsible for
Deskilling in Canada
• The changing composition of source countries.
Between 1981 and 2001, the majority of immigrants
entering Canada were from Eastern Europe, South Asia,
East Asia, Western Asia, and Africa, regions where the
human capital is less transferable due to issues of
language, cultural differences, education, credentials,
and discrimination
• Foreign work experience is significantly discounted in
the Canadian labor market; and
• The increasing number of highly educated Canadianborn
Labour Segmentation Theories
• Labour segmentation theorists have blamed
demand-side, supply side, and more recently
multidimensionality of labour-market exclusion
and the interaction of material and discursive
• This includes immigration status, place of origin and the refusal
to recognize foreign credentials
• Increase in the level of education for immigrants
since the 1950s (Akabari 1999)
• Yet, these immigrants have lower returns on
education than Canadian-born (Reitz 2001)
Institutionalized Cultural Capital
• Cultural Capital refers to the social assets a
person has – such as education, style of
speech, intellect, style of dressing – that
promote social mobility in a stratified society.
• It includes the accumulated cultural
knowledge that confers social status and
Types of Cultural Capital
• Different types of Cultural Capital (Bourdieu,
– Embodied cultural capital shows a person’s worth
through corporeal (bodily) representation
– Objectified cultural capital associates value with
the consumption and appropriation of cultural
– Institutionalized cultural capital ties competence
to institutional things such as educational degree
or college certificates etc
Canadian Cultural Regulation of
• Many upper segment occupations in Canada are
tightly regulated by professional organizations.
• This is supported by federal and provincial
• It enforces the reproduction of their own
members through the differential treatment of
foreign and Canadian educated workers.
– For instance, the Medical Council of Canada requires
foreign educated professionals to pass a written exam
and in most cases, obtain an additional 2 to 6 years of
training in Canada
Canadian Cultural Regulation of
• Other provincially regulated professions include
law, nursing, social work and teaching.
• Unfortunately, a lot of these organizations are not
set up to assess foreign credentials prior to the
immigrants arrival in Canada.
• In a lot of cases, the Accreditation Boards favour
Canadian certificates over foreign ones
• For example, the Canadian Architectural
Accreditation Board charges graduates from
Canadian schools $300 and foreign graduates
$1000 just to assess their professional credentials
Effects of Devaluation of Credentials
for Immigrants
• Labour devaluation occurs because foreign
degrees are not recognized.
• The devaluation of credentials has a negative
impact on immigrants
• Despite employers being satisfied with the
work of the immigrants, the salaries do not
reflect it.
• Increase in poverty
• Slower catch up rates
Effects of Devaluation of Credentials
for Immigrants
• When no formal regulation for professional
services exists, Canadian experience becomes
another deterrent.
• Volunteering opportunities
– Work for free
– Use up savings
– Harder lives and more difficulty in settling in
• Brain drain from the country the immigrant
leaves to Canada occurs
• Also brain abuse because neither country
benefits from the skills of this immigrant
• So, these immigrants lose from both ends.
They do not use their skills in their home
country and in their new country.
SOSC 3043 Comparative
Perspectives on Social Exclusion and
Week 4 Environmental Pollution and
Social Exclusion
Race and the Environment
• Race and class are important determinants of
the location of environmental pollution,
degradation and associated health risks.
• Minorities, the poor and other less powerful
groups suffer from environmental injustice
e.g. Flint
Race and the Environment
• Assumption that environmentalism was a
“White” thing. “Whites only hypothesis”
• Whites Only Hypothesis came as a myth
because Civil Rights movement in the early
1970s had people who saw environmentalists
as people trying to divert issues from their
movement (Carter, 1994)
Race and the Environment
• Others in the Civil Rights movement attacked
environmentalist ideas such as “population
control”, “no growth” because they were seen
as being racist or working in contrast to the
interest of people of colour.
Race and Environmental Pollution
• It is assumed that Blacks are exposed to more
pollution and more serious environmental
degradation than Whites.
• The Lincoln Home housing project was built
on an abandoned waste dump (Rainey, 2003)
Differential Exposure Hypothesis
• Differential exposure hypothesis (Jones, Fly
and Cordell, 1999; Lowe and Pinhey, 1982 and
Rainey, 2003) assume that people who are
exposed to greater local environmental
degradation and pollution are more
concerned about the environment.
• However, this does not take into account
public perception on the environmental risk
and injustice.
Environmental Degradation on Race
• Environmental prejudice towards Blacks
makes them more aware of unfair practices
and negative consequences associated with
environmental pollution and risky
• Research shows Blacks are significantly more
concerned than Whites about local
environmental concerns.
Environmental Degradation, Race and
the State
• Government agencies have also been
criticized for being slow to provide relief to
contaminated communities of colour and
levying lower fines to companies that
contaminate these communities.
• Public local agencies and officials have failed
to deal with environmental concerns in their
Environmental Degradation, Race and
the State
• Research shows Blacks are just as concerned,
if not more concerned, thank Whites about
the environment (Jones, 2002; Mohai, 2003)
• It is actually the government that is not
concerned about the environment and does
not bother to tell the locals the dangers that
exist there.
Flint, Michigan: Race, Environmental
Degradation and the State
• Flint Water crisis started in 2014
• Officials did not apply corrosion inhibitors to the
• Lead contamination present in the water supply.
• The affected people do not have the power to
challenge these injustices
– Former Governor Rick Snyder, who was the governor
during contamination, only left office on December
31, 2018 due to term limits.
Flint, Michigan: Race, Environmental
Degradation and the State
• In May 2019, a new Virginia Tech study by
Profs Edwards and Roy showed a connection
between the rising levels of lead in city waste,
blood lead levels in children and the use of
Flint River as a water source.
SOSC 3043 Comparative
Perspectives on Social Exclusion and
Week 5 Healthcare and Social
Health Equity
• Health Equity is the principle that motivates
efforts to eliminate disparities in health’s
between groups of people who are
economically or socially worse off from those
better off by improving the health of those
economically and socially disadvantaged.
• Differences in race/ethnicity, socio-economic groups,
disability status, sexual orientation, religion, language, and
gender identity.
Health Disparities
• Health disparities are the metrics by which we
measure progress towards health equity.
• Health disparities and equity are central
priorities that should drive public health
• Health disparities raise issues about social
Health Disparity
• For a health difference to be called a health
disparity, it must be plausible, with respect to
current science, that the difference is
• It is difficult to prove that one factor causes a
particular effect.
• Discrimination refers to intentional or
unintentional discrimination of structures and
processes that systematically put a social
group at a disadvantage
– For example, discrimination in the public school
– Public schools depend on local property taxes so
schools in disadvantaged communities are underresources.
Healthcare and Health Disparities
• Resources needed for healthcare is more than
just medical. It includes education, and living
and working conditions.
• So if the rest are unequal, healthcare will be
unequal too.
Indigenous People and Health Care in
• Inequalities between Indigenous and nonIndigenous peoples in Canada persist.
• Past experiences of discrimination by health
professionals grow into assumptions regarding
the potential for future discrimination by other
health professionals which may create barriers to
seeking healthcare.
• Inability to treat indigenous related health issues
Indigenous People and Health Care in
• The health status of Indigenous peoples in
Canada must be understood within the context of
current and historical colonial policies
implemented by the Canadian government and
other colonial institutions, from the loss of land
and autonomy, to the creation of the reserves
systems, the historical removal of Indigenous
children into residential schools, and the current
removal of Indigenous children by the child
welfare system
Indigenous People and Health Care in
• Indigenous peoples in urban settings may be at a higher
risk of not receiving healthcare when they felt they
needed it, due to increased risk of discrimination when
living within a dense concentration of non-Indigenous
• The need for Indigenous cultural safety training in
medical and nursing schools in Canada, particularly “skills
based training in intercultural competency, conflict
resolution, human rights, and anti-racism”
• Calls for healthcare providers to receive cultural safety
training to address implicit bias.
Human Rights and Health Care
• Human rights laws, treaties, and principles
clarify the concepts of health disparities and
health equity and guide their measurements.
• Human rights agreement obligate
governments to be progressive about all
people getting their human rights
• Right to health is defined as the right to attain
the highest attainable standard of health.
Human Rights and Health Care
• Legislative loopholes and jurisdictional
ambiguities between the provincial/territorial
governments responsible for general
healthcare provision and federal levels of
government providing health services to some
First Nations and Inuit communities result in
confusion regarding where and how
Indigenous peoples can access healthcare
Life-Course Approach
• A Life-Course approach considers how health later in
life is shaped by earlier experiences.
– A Life-Course approach means considering the roots of
adult illness in the previous stages of life
– It helps in understanding how health disparities are
created, exacerbated and reproduced among generations
– It directs us to consider issues such as how the
transmission of wealth and/or educational attainment
across generations may contribute to health disparities.
– It considers the economic and social factors across a
person’s entire life course that influences their health.
Life-Course Perspective
• A Life-Course perspective means
systematically considering economic and
social factors of each stage of life.
• Social factors can exacerbate and perpetuate
health disparities by shaping the social
consequences of illness.
• Life Course perspective looks at fundamental
causes now and earlier in life.
SOSC 3043 Comparative
Perspectives on Social Exclusion and
Week 6 Gender and Social Exclusion
• European social exclusion with an emphasis
on gender and its parallel comparison to the
same issues in the Global South.
• Social exclusion in development is used to
understand poverty in the South
• Some see it as a cause of poverty and others
see poverty as a form of social exclusion (de
Haan, 1998)
Marginality and Integration in Feminist
Analysis of Development
• The idea that inclusion is good and exclusion is
bad (Rodgers 1995)
• Argument that women were not categorically
excluded but rather included through
reproductive labour (Papanek, 1997)
– Recognizing women’s value in the labour force
through reproductive labour as it subsidized
wages, and therefore capital, and was thus
necessary to capitalist development.
Marginality and Integration in Feminist
Analysis of Development
• The Gender and Development school objected
to the implication that ‘integration’ was a
painless process of integration (Roberts,
• Integration leading to greater exploitation of
women’s labour.
• Inclusion and exclusion through marriage
Marginality and Integration in Feminist
Analysis of Development
• Women’s marginalization is no longer seen as
parallel in its form of marginalization of the
colonized, the non-white or the poor (Tsing
• However, it is seen as a feature of social
relations within these groups, including those
of dominant social groups.
• That is, gender is embedded in other forms of
Marginality and Integration in Feminist
Analysis of Development
• Marginality offers both limitations and
opportunities e.g. motherhood.
• Marginality also offers positions for protests
against labour relations e.g. women’s march
• Marginals stand outside the state by tying
themselves into it
• Marginalisation is not necessarily negative. It
offers both limitations and opportunities. It is
also possible for women to be included and
excluded simultaneously.
• Inclusion is not necessarily positive, but usually
has a price. Women often face a choice between
inclusion and servitude or autonomy with
• Exclusion is not necessarily involuntary as social
exclusion theorists assume.
• Gender mediates forms of exclusion, but does not
produce categories of people excluded in uniform
• Power is dispersed, contingent and unstable. Social
exclusion approaches have a too simplistic view of
power in which the included are powerful and the
excluded powerless.
• Individuals shape social processes and institutions, and
are not just passive recipients of their effects. Social
exclusion theories see such factors as structural, and
do not adequately embrace concepts of agency.
Policy Implications
• Ensure that labour-based social inclusion
programmes build positive perceptions of
contributions in household relations and do
not transform one form of dependence into a
worse variety.
• Better understand power relations and the
resistance or absence of resistance by the
excluded through providing an understanding
of subjectivity.
Policy Implications
• Better understand the gendered processes
behind entitlement failure, which the social
exclusion approach does not analyse
• Avoid social inclusion at the cost of cultural
Policy Implications
• Avoid the pitfall of treating gender as a
synonym for women, which is a tendency in
social exclusion approaches.
• Be more exact in differentiating the nature of
exclusion in the different social identities of
race, gender, disability and age.
SOSC 3043 Comparative
Perspectives on Social Exclusion and
Week 8 Disability and Social
Disability and Social Exclusion
• Many disabled people are out of work and
living in poverty.
• Among those employed, a lot of the employed
people with disabilities are usually found in
low status, low paid jobs.
• They are underrepresented in managerial and professional
positions and overrepresented in unskilled clerical/sales
and manual labour jobs
Disability and Social Exclusion
• Draws on feminist analyses to show how
people with disability have really high rates of
• Comparison of the representation of men and
women with disabilities versus their nondisabilities counterparts in the ‘Big Six’ banks
in Canada.
• Health and Activity Limitation Survey (HALS) of
1986 and 1991
• Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS)
of 2001
• HALS showed that 48.2% of people with
disabilities were employed as opposed to 73% of
people without disability that were employed.
• HALS showed that there are more employed men
with disabilities than their female counterparts.
Barriers to Social Inclusion
• ‘Ableist barriers’ that prevent workers with
disabilities from working include poorly
designed workstations, discriminatory and
pejorative attitudes and practices such as
people with privilege projecting their
experiences as representative of everyone’s
• Employers being uninformed and
Disability, Gender and Social Exclusion
• Gender differences as women with
disabilities earn less than men with
• However, men with disabilities earn more
than women without disabilities.
Disabilities, Social Policy and Civil
• The Employment Equity Act addresses
systemic employment discrimination faced by
four groups – women, persons with
disabilities, visible minorities and Aboriginal
• The Employment Equity Act focuses on the
employer, thus removing the burden from the
person with disability.
Disabilities, Social Policy and Civil
• The purpose of the Employment Equity Act is
• achieve equality in the work place so that no person shall
be denied employment opportunities or benefits for
reasons unrelated to ability and, in the fulfillment of that
goal, to correct the conditions of disadvantage in
employment experienced by [the designated groups] by
giving effect to the principle that employment equity
means more than treating persons the same way but also
requires special measures and accommodation of
differences (Section 2 of both the 1986 and 1995 Act).
Employment Equity in the ‘Big Six’
• The Big Six has minimal success in workplace
equity in Toronto
– There was a decline on a national scale
• There has been a notable increase in the number
of women in management and professional
– Possibly because these women became disabled while
already employed.
• Women and people with disabilities have greatly
benefited from banks’ equity policies
• Evidence shows that organizations with
formalized and comprehensive employment
equity programs closed the gaps between
designated groups and other employees faster
than those without such programs (Leck, St.
Onge and Lalancette 1995; Leck and Saunders
• Social inclusion through activism and rightbased politics
• Not much difference with the Act so it can be
improved and strengthened.
• Disability studies promote a vision of people
with disabilities as independent, full citizens
rather than medicalized, dependent objects of
• Change requires dismantling ableist barriers
and confronting ableism in the workplace and
anywhere else.
SOSC 3043 Comparative
Perspectives on Social Exclusion and
Week 9 Social Exclusion and
Social Exclusion and Finances
• The effects of social exclusion on financial
decision making, which is a crucial part of
consumer behaviour.
• Social exclusion in the form of interpersonal
rejection increases financial risk taking, as
people substitute money for popularity in
order to obtain the benefits in life.
• People go as far as taking cocaine if it grants them
Social Exclusion and Finances
• In a social system, people get what they need
either through popularity or money.
• Since money and group membership helps one
acquire similar benefits, consumers are more
likely to turn to money when efforts for group
membership fail (when excluded).
• Consumers’ welfare largely depends on the
soundness of their financial decisions.
Money and Control
• More than servicing needs, money serves to
impress and control others (Furhnam, 1984).
• Money breeds a source of self sufficiency and
• Without social support, excluded consumers
need more money to get what they need to
thrive in the world.
Money and Control
• So the quest for wealth makes people take
riskier positions that could potentially yield
more lucrative financial opportunities.
• The end goal is to have more money so they
can buy things they have been excluded from.
• Study 1: Does feeling excluded (versus included)
influence riskier gambling?
– Participants who felt excluded exhibited greater risk
taking propensities
• Study 2: What is the direct impact of social
exclusion (versus inclusion) on financial decisions.
– Does negative mood in general and sadness influence
consumers’ decision making?
– Social rejection, not acceptance, drives this riskiness
• Study 3: What are the mechanisms by which
consumers come to favour riskier schemes?
– Excluded consumers perceived money as a way to
get what they wanted in the world
– Social exclusion can bruise self worth/self esteem
– So consumers want more money in order to
ensure control in life
• Study 4: When and why would consumers make
risky financial decisions?
– Casts doubt on previous studies
– Excluded participants’ risk perception of the stock
portfolio did not differ from their included
• Study 5: Do these findings replicate in the real
world with heterogeneous population.
– The impact of social integration (or a lack thereof)
goes beyond experimental manipulations and applies
to consumers’ chronic feelings of acceptance and
• The financial risk taken as a result of social
exclusion is nothing more than the
manifestation of self-defeating behaviour.
• Self-defeating behavior is defined as “a
deliberate action with clear negative effects
on the self or on the self ’s projects”
(Baumeister and Scher 1988).
SOSC 3043 Comparative
Perspectives on Social Exclusion and
Week 10 Social Exclusion and
Social Exclusion and Housing
• A person’s housing location determines the
following issues
– Where and how to find basic services, a doctor, a
dentist, suitable and affordable housing; how to
register for school; how to access public services,
indeed even to know that such services exist; how
to learn codes of expected behavior, including
relations with teachers, social workers, and law
4 contributions
– Location plays an important role in shaping immigrant
– Consideration of the multiple geographical scales
implicated in the construction and experience of
poverty. Different geographical scales impose different
constraints on immigrants.
– Setting the immigrant experience in Canada in the
broader comparative context of immigrant outcomes
in the United States and western Europe
– Complementing quantitative analyses of poverty
effects with a qualitative methodology using focus
groups to generate narratives that offer insight on the
meaning of concentrated poverty in everyday life.
Immigration, Housing and Poverty
• Immigrant poverty and social exclusion in Toronto
and Vancouver
• On a national scale, immigrants are framed as
second class citizens – outsiders.
• ‘Cultures of poverty’ or stigmatization being
encouraged in multicultural Canada.
• To be a poor immigrant in a poor neighborhood
was a fundamentally different experience from
that of Canadian-born poverty.
Immigration, Housing and Poverty
• Immigrants being both strangers and
• Without Canadian experience, overseas
education, training, and labor as doctors,
engineers, teachers, or musicians opened no
• Spatial segregation of urban poor

World Comparisons
• European countries such as Germany or
Switzerland that regard immigrants as temporary
workers offer modest settlement services and
distant citizenship horizons await these
• Whereas the settler societies of North America
and Australia have historically seen immigration
as a primary means of nation building, there
remains considerable variation in reception
• Comment by one of the surveyed people
– The area I am living in now is not the place of my
choice. It is the place where I live out of necessity. I’m
kind of forced to live there. It is a high rise building.
It’s a twenty-story building. But the cost is less. It’s a
crowded area. Mostly low-income people live there
and most of them are from Asia, Africa, South
America. The building is not very famous for its
security. . . . The people living there . . . are not very
considerate of each other . . . and they are not very
careful about the apartment . . . the elevators—they
are really dirty and sometimes you know . . . it stinks
so badly that you don’t want to use them.
Immigration, Housing and Social
• New immigrants rely heavily on public transit
so they have to be in locations with proper
transit else they suffer.
• Immigrants concentrated in poor areas
without proper services
• Concentrated Poverty and Neighbourhood
– Services and job prospects being affected by
Immigration, Housing and Social
• Security issues and tensions in the housing
areas where immigrants/poor people are.
• People being influenced by the
neighbourhood and the negative influence it
has on kids in these neighbourhoods.
• These areas are stigmatized and there is the
idea that nothing good comes out of it.
• The ideas of these neighbourhoods follow its
residents and usually sets a course for their
lives in exclusion
• Systemic exclusion caused by housing

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