psy 301 pre lab 10

DescriptionPsy 301:lab 8
Nuoyun wu
Alan De La Cruz
Psy 301: Literature Review
The article, “Physiological responses to acute stress and the drive to eat: The impact of perceived
life stress” (Klatzkin et al., 2019) examines the relationship between physiological stress
responses and the drive to eat. The authors used a sample of university students to measure the
impact of perceived life stress on physiological stress responses and the drive to eat. The results
of the study showed that perceived life stress had a significant impact on both physiological
stress responses and the drive to eat. Specifically, higher levels of perceived life stress were
linked to higher levels of cortisol and an increased drive to eat. Furthermore, the authors found
that the relationship between the drive to eat and perceived stress was mediated by cortisol.
These results suggest that higher levels of perceived life stress can lead to an increased drive to
eat, possibly due to the physiological effects of cortisol. This study provides insight into the
physiological responses to stress and their impact on the drive to eat, which can help to inform
interventions aimed at improving health outcomes.
Another artcicle, “Role of virtues and perceived life stress in affecting psychological symptoms
among Chinese college students” (Duan et al., 2019) discusses the role of virtues and perceived
life stress in affecting psychological symptoms among Chinese college students. The study was
conducted among 4,824 Chinese college students from seven universities in the Guangdong
Province. The findings of the study showed that both the virtues of self-transcendence and
self-enhancement had an effect on psychological symptoms, with self-transcendence having a
more positive effect. The study also found that perceived life stress had a significant impact on
psychological symptoms, with higher levels of stress resulting in higher levels of psychological
symptoms. The results of the study suggest that interventions aimed at reducing stress and
promoting positive virtues among college students may be beneficial in reducing psychological
symptoms. These findings have implications for mental health interventions among Chinese
college students, and may be useful for informing health promotion strategies in other countries.
Duan et al. (2019) investigates the impact of perceived life stress on eating behavior among
college students in China. Their study was conducted using a survey measuring perceived life
stress and self-reported eating behaviors. The results showed that greater perceived life stress
was associated with more frequent snack consumption, especially among those with higher body
mass index. Additionally, the study found that the relationship between perceived life stress and
snack consumption was stronger among female students. In contrast, Klatzkin et al. (2019)
examined the impact of acute stress on the drive to eat. A laboratory study was conducted where
participants were exposed to an acute stressor and their physiological responses were monitored.
The results showed that acute stress was associated with increased hunger and urge to eat,
particularly among those with higher body mass index. Additionally, the results showed that the
urge to eat was greater when participants were confronted with high-calorie food options.
References
Duan, W., Ho, S. M., Siu, B. P., Li, T., & Zhang, Y. (2019). Role of virtues and perceived life
stress in affecting psychological symptoms among Chinese college students. Journal of
American College Health, 63(1), 32-39.
Klatzkin, R. R., Baldassaro, A., & Rashid, S. (2019). Physiological responses to acute stress and
the drive to eat: The impact of perceived life stress. Appetite, 133, 393-399.
Survey Project Labs – Overview
Background:
With the cell phone lab, you were given a topic to study (i.e., texting and cross walking behavior), the
methodology with which to do that study (i.e., observational method), and background literature (i.e.,
Schwebel, 2012).
With this Survey Project, we have to do the set-up first:
 In small groups, you will decide on a survey topic (choose one of two outcome variables
provided in lecture), create a survey using an existing/validated scale (outcome variable), write
your own survey questions, put that survey onto Qualtrics, and collect survey data online. You
will be evaluating each other on your group performance, so please work together and
contribute to the group.
 Individually, you will review the literature on your chosen topic, create hypotheses grounded
in that literature, analyze the collected data to test those hypotheses, and write an APA-style
paper.
Prelab – Learning Qualtrics (3 points)
Qualtrics is an online survey research suite. It allows you to build surveys and collect data online.
Survey research is moving more and more into the online realm, so learning how to navigate an
online survey research program (like Qualtrics or Survey Monkey) is an invaluable tool to research
labs, graduate programs, and future employers.
As part of your prelab, you will watch four brief videos about the basics of Qualtrics, and then you
will use those skills to build a sample survey.
 Go to Qualtrics Basecamp https://basecamp.qualtrics.com/page/learn-to-use-qualtrics-researchcore
 Click on “LOG IN” in the upper right
 IMPORTANT – When clicking on this link, it will prompt you
to put in an email address/password. HOWEVER, you will need
to click “sign in with SSO” and from there type in ”sdsu.”
 You should now be logged into the Qualtrics account to view
the videos.
 Please watch the first 4 videos:

Configuring Your Research Project

Customizing Your Research Project

Sharing Your Research Project

Collecting Research Feedback
 Pay attention to these tutorials, as you will be constructing a practice survey using Qualtrics.
 Build your own survey.
 For this you need to sign onto your own Qualtrics account:
 https://sdsu.qualtrics.com
 The instructions for this activity are below (Qualtrics Practice Survey). Feel free to print out
the rest of this page so that you do not need to move back and forth between screens. You
need to build this practice survey prior to lab. (After completing the practice survey you will
have an understanding of how to work with Qualtrics so that you can jump right in during
lab.)

When you are done building this sample survey, please email the link to your TA.

The subject line should read: PSY 301 Practice Survey Link-(Last Name)

Copy and paste the link in the body of the email

Email this link before Lab 7- this is prelab work!
Qualtrics Practice Survey
You recently started an ice cream shop and are interested in collecting feedback from
your customers.
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9.
Create a new project from scratch.
Build a new descriptive text question that welcomes your respondents to your
survey. Using the Rich Content Editor, insert an image of your ice cream shop in the
text of this question.
Insert a manual page break after your welcome question.
Build a new multiple-choice question (after the page break) asking your
respondents if they recently visited your ice cream shop.
Build a new multiple-choice question asking your respondents for their gender.
In a new block, build a new matrix table question asking how satisfied your
respondents were with various aspects of your ice cream shop (taste, flavor options,
atmosphere, staff).
Build a new text entry question asking why your respondents were dissatisfied with
their visit to your ice cream shop.
Use the Look & Feel to apply a survey theme that you like.
Use the Look & Feel to change the question text across your entire survey to Georgia font
Let’s customize the pathways respondents will take through our survey.
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Use skip logic to skip those that have not recently visited your ice cream shop to the
end of the block.
Use a branch in your survey flow (placed in between your first and second blocks) that
sends respondents to the end of the survey if they have not recently visited your shop.
Set up a custom end of survey message that will display to these respondents as they
end your survey.
Use display logic to specify that your text entry question (why were you
dissatisfied?) only appears to those who indicated that they were dissatisfied in your
matrix table question (how satisfied were you with … ?)
Preview your survey to ensure that your logic is working as expected. Make any changes
needed to achieve the desired behavior.
Let’s collaborate and distribute our survey.
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2.
Share your survey with your TA (select share project and find your TA’s name)
Get a single reusable link to distribute your survey to your TA
Prelab – Writing Questions (2 points)
What is your group’s survey topic (Perceived Life Stress or Self-Esteem)?
________________________________
This is your outcome variable (dependent variable). This is the variable we will be trying
to explain in our survey research project.
What about this topic interests you? What are some predictor variables (independent variables) that
you think might explain your outcome variable? Think ahead to what hypotheses you may have about
how these variables go together.
Write FOUR opinion questions based on this topic. These questions need to be on a scale (e.g.,
Strongly disagree—Disagree—Neutral—Agree—Strongly agree).
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What are some demographic variables that you think might explain your outcome variable?
Write FOUR demographic questions that you are interested in. Be sure to include
response options as well.
*Do not write gender or age-we will already include these in our survey.*
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Lab 7:
Setting up the Survey Project – Writing Survey Questions &
Creating Qualtrics Survey
Objectives for Lab 7:
1. Write good survey questions with good response formats
2. Differentiate between opinion questions and demographic questions
3. Create Qualtrics survey (online survey tool)
Writing Survey Questions: (5 points)
Get into small groups and share your questions (from prelab). You will be responsible for
condensing your lists into one group list.
OPINION QUESTIONS:
 Look for common interests/themes (i.e., what questions do you have common?)
 Decide on additional questions, if needed (i.e., what other questions are important
and/or interesting to ask on the survey?)
 Once you have decided on your opinion questions…
 Work together as a group to correct them (look at the Qualtrics website for Best Practices)
 Decide on the appropriate response formats. All opinion questions should be on a scale
variables (e.g., never – always, strongly disagree – strongly agree), probably on 5- or 7- or 9point scales.
 Make sure that your items and your responses go together! (e.g., do not ask a “how often… ”
question and give “strongly disagree – strongly agree” as responses)
DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONS:
 Make sure to start with AGE and GENDER – don’t forget these!
 Look for common interests (i.e., what questions do all/most of you want to ask?)
 Decide on additional questions, if needed (i.e., what other questions are important
and/or interesting to ask on the survey?)
 Once you have decided on your demographic questions…
 Work together as a group to correct them (look at the Qualtrics website for Best Practices)
 Decide on the appropriate response formats
 Make sure that your items and your responses go together
Create Survey on Qualtrics: (5 points)
 Work as a group to build your survey on Qualtrics.
 One member of the group will log in with their SDSUID and password at the following link:
https://sdsu.qualtrics.com
 Click Create Survey and then select Create Project
 Enter a name for the survey and begin building survey (Create a New Question)
 Remember the tutorials from your prelab when building your items
 Work together as a group-if you forgot how to do something, someone in your group will
probably remember, so check with the group before your ask the TA
 Make sure all of your items have the appropriate response formats
 Order of scales:

It’s probably a good idea to start with the existing, validated measure in its own
block (your DV) = Perceived Life Stress Scale or Self-Esteem Scale (can find this
on Canvas)

You will probably then create a block of opinion questions.

Finally, you will probably ask your demographic questions.

This may change depending on your topic and if you need to use any skip logic, etc.
 Ask your TAs if you have any problems with entering questions, formatting answer
responses, using Skip/Display logic, etc.
 In order for all members of the group to have access to the survey, select My Projects from the
task bar at the top of the screen to be directed to the home screen. Click the arrow for the
dropdown menu on the right side of the screen next to your survey, select Share Project, add all
group members and your TA and your professor. Make sure that everyone has the ability to do all
things (edit, view reports, etc.). Then click Save.
Lab Report:
Upload a copy of your survey (either (1) take a screenshot and paste into a Word document or (2)
copy and paste the survey into a Word document
 To make sure you all get credit, please type all of your names in the top right corner (where
your name usually goes).
 Also, put your initials next to which questions you think you may use for your hypotheses (we
know you haven’t written them yet, but it will give the TA an idea of who is interested in what)
 What opinion item are you most interested in as an outcome variable?
 What other item could be related to this (correlation hypothesis)?
 What demographic item could you use for a group difference hypothesis?
 Make sure to collaborate with your TA-this will be how the TA checks your work this week.
No collaboration, no points.

Lab 7 Grading Rubric
Pts
possible
Pts
Earned
Item
2
Qualtrics Ice Cream Survey (Prelab)
3
4 demographic & 4 opinion survey questions (Prelab)
5
Writing survey questions (in small groups)
A
5
*Demographic questions with age and gender
*Opinion questions with appropriate answer scales
Create survey on Qualtrics (in small groups)
Lab 8:
Setting up the Survey Project – Literature Review
Objectives for Lab 8:
1. Use psyclNFO to search the literature for relevant articles
2. Find two research articles
3. Complete two article summaries (article summary page can be found on Canvas)
Literature Review:
Accessing psyclNFO
 You have a link to the library on your SDSU homepage (sdsu.edu). Click on “menu” then “current
student” then scroll down to ACADEMICS and click on “library)
 On the Library Homepage, select Databases, then Databases a-z, select the P category, and
scroll down and click on psyclNFO
Doing a search
 At the top of the search screen, you have three open boxes where you can put your search
terms.
 In the first box, type in your specific class survey topic (self-esteem or perceived life stress)
 In the second box, type in the related construct of interest (predictor. – e.g., gender)
 On the right side of the screen a couple of rows down, you will see an option called
Publication Year from ______ to ______
 Type in 2010 in the first box (this will ensure that our search is recent)
 On the right side of the screen a couple of rows down, you will see an option called Peer
Reviewed-click that box (this will make sure we only get peer reviewed journals articles-not
dissertations or book chapters)
 Click on the Search box (either at the top or the bottom of the page).
Results of a search
 At the top, you should see All Results: 1-30 of ____
 If this number is above 100, you might want to add another search term or use a synonym for
one of the terms you have in the search-this just means your search is still too broad to be
beneficial. If this number is reasonable, you can start scrolling through the titles until you find
ones that sounds of interest to your search. Click on the title to read the abstract.
 Once you have located articles of interest, make note of the citation
 Exclude dissertations (the peer-review option should screen these out)


Avoid using a review article or a meta-analysis as one of your two papers-they take a bit more
work to “decipher”
You will need this to find the actual article
 Note: some articles are available online. You will usually see the PDF option on that search
results screen or when you click on the title to read the abstract. If this is an option, save it
and/or print the article so that you have it.
 However, if the article is not available online, you will have to go to the library to find the
actual print article and make a copy of it. If you need help finding anything, ask the librariansthat is what they are there for.
 If we do not have access to it, find another article because Interlibrary Loan can
take a while… sorry.
Finalizing your articles
If you are having a difficult time limiting your search (your search is too broad), ask your
groups members and/or your TA
 If you are having a difficult finding anything (your search is too narrow), also ask your groups
members and/or your TA
 Make sure you read the abstracts to see if these articles are close to what you are looking for…
when you have found one…
 Find the complete article
 Read the complete article (hopefully it is still what you are looking for)
 If it is not what you were looking for, keep searching.
 Complete the article summary page to turn in with your article.
 When completing these, highlight portions of the abstract/article where you are pulling the
relevant information for the summary sheet.

Try paraphrasing this information for the article summary sheet-as you will need this for the
Introduction section of your paper


Lab Report:
Literature Review (8pts, 4pts each article)
 For this lab, you will be uploading a Word document with a screenshot of your 2 abstracts
and your articles summaries for each article

Both articles should be related to your outcome variable of interest.

The ideal scenario is to find one article that would provide background for your group
difference hypothesis and one article that would provide background for your
correlation hypothesis.
Lab 8 Grading Rubric
Pts
Pts
Item
possible Earned
4
Article Summary Sheet #1
Article summary sheet filled out
Article relevance and connection to potential hypothesis
Screen shot of Abstract uploaded
4
Article Summary Sheet #2
Article summary sheet filled out
Article relevance and connection to potential hypothesis
Screen shot of Abstract uploaded
Lab 9:
Writing Hypotheses (in lab) & Data Collection (outside lab)
Objectives for Lab 9:
1. Write two hypotheses that make sense (based on previous lit) and are interesting
 Hypothesize a group difference
 Hypothesize a correlation
2. Correct any mistakes on your survey in Qualtrics
3. Collect data via Qualtrics
Writing Hypotheses:
**What is your Survey Topic? Think of the OUTCOME variable of interest.**
 The score created from the existing, validated scale
Outcome:
Predicting a Group Difference
For comparing 2 groups on a quantitative outcome variable, you use a t-test
 Find a question which splits your sample into two groups. (PREDICTOR) – two groups you
think will differ on your OUTCOME variable of interest
 This can be a demographic question (e.g., gender)
 This can be another demographic question (e.g., “I live with my parents” 1=no, 1=yes)
 Wording the hypothesis – in terms of the outcome and predictor
 State the outcome
 State what exactly you expect (one group will have more of something) not just that there will
be a difference
 State the comparison groups-don’t make empty comparisons by leaving the comparison out
(this was a no-no in the writing guide)

Example: It was hypothesized that women will report more self esteem than men.

Example: It was hypothesized that men will report more perceived life stress compared to
women.
Predicting a Correlation
 You will need another question that will be related to your OUTCOME variable of interest – it
should also be a continuous variable
 This can be another opinion question that has a continuous scale (so that you will have some
variance in the responses)
 Example: “I am in good health” 1=strongly disagree to 5= strongly agree
 This can be a demographic question (e.g., age)
 Correlation does not mean causation!
 Do not ever use causal language when talking about non-experimental designs (e.g.,
survey research)
 However, sometimes we know the temporal order of two variables
 Example: Age will predict differences in health
o Does it make sense to hypothesize that health will predict age? Probably not.
 Other times, our two variables may be interchangeable with respect to our hypothesis
 Example: Hours of sleep may predict health, or health may predict hours of sleep (you
can make a case for both directions)
o In this case, your literature should help inform your hypothesis
 Wording the hypothesis
 State the outcome variable
 State what exactly you expect (positive correlation, negative correlation) – not
just that there will be a relationship
 Explain the correlation

Positive correlation:
o Example: It was hypothesized that the number of hours of sleep will be positively
correlated with satisfaction with life; that is, the more sleep a participant reports
getting, the more they will be satisfied with life.

Negative correlation:
o
Example: It was hypothesized that support from coworkers will be negatively
correlated with turnover intentions; that is, the more support a participant reports
from coworkers, the fewer turnover intentions they will also report.
Develop your hypotheses
Group difference hypothesis – t-test
State your Outcome variable:
State your Predictor variable:
What are the groups?
Group 1:
Group 2:
State your hypothesis (using guidelines listed above):
Using the bar graph below, type in your 2 group names on the x-axis and (based on which group you
think will score higher or lower on your outcome variable) and type in your outcome variable on the yaxis. This graph should show what you are predicting in your two-group hypothesis:
Correlation hypothesis:
State your Predictor variable:
State your Outcome variable:
State your hypothesis (using guidelines listed above):
Looking at the line graphs below, indicate which graph depicts your correlation hypothesis (either
a positive correlation or a negative correlation). Type in your predictor variable on the x-axis and
your outcome variable on the y-axis of the graph that shows what you are predicting in your
correlation hypothesis.
Lab Report:
 Hypotheses (2pts, 1 for each hypothesis)
 For this lab, you will be uploading a document with your two hypotheses in Word, and a
screenshot of your bar graph (labeled) and scatterplot (labeled)
 Remember to put your name and TA on the document and follow all other computer rules
for submission
 Make sure that you save the document to your flash drive.
CORRECT ANY MISTAKES ON YOUR SURVEY!!!
 If your TA has found any mistakes with your survey, please make sure to fix them. Get together
in your small group, decide who will log in, and everyone help fix the mistake (wording of the
item, wording of the responses options, display logic, etc.).
 You need to map your hypotheses onto your survey items.
 Every group member should write their name next to the items they plan to use to
 test their hypotheses
 Example: I am testing gender differences on perceived life stress for my group
difference hypothesis. I would write my name next to the gender item and the
perceived life stress scale on the survey.
Data Collection: (5 pts)
 Note: You do not have to be in lab to collect data (since we will be collecting data online).
 ONLY when the TA has approved your survey, you are ready to distribute it.
 Click Launch Survey under the “Edit Survey” tab. From here, you will be prompted to Get
a single reusable link and you will be provided with an anonymous survey link. Keep track
of this link, as each member of the group will use it to distribute the
survey.
 It is a good idea for all group members to save this link in a word document and/or an
email.
 Each member of the group is responsible for administering the survey to 25-30 people
so that your group gathers at least 100 responses in total.
 Please send the link to roughly equal numbers of men and women (so that there will be an
even gender distribution.

Make sure that you treat all participants the same by telling them the exact
same thing in your email request:
• “Can I ask you to take a few minutes to complete a survey for my
class research project? We are interested in (SURVEY TOPIC).
This survey is completely anonymous and we will not ask for your
name anywhere on this survey. It will be combined with other
surveys so that your data are not identifiable. Please follow the link
below to complete the short survey. Thank you for helping me with
my class research project.”
 Or post the link on some sort of social media outlet for collection

E.g., Facebook, Twitter, etc.
 DO NOT POST TO ANY CANVAS CLASSES!!! You will lose points (more than the 5)
if we find out that you have done so.
 Make sure you give them the correct link in your email request.
 Since this is an anonymous survey, there is no way of checking “who collected what.” Your
group will receive credit based on the group’s data collection. You need to have all of your
data collected by Lab 12. This will be worth 5 points.
Lab 9 Grading Rubric
Pts
Pts
Item
possible earned
Hypotheses
2
Group difference hypothesis (t-test)
Correlation hypothesis (r)
5
Data collection
Lab 10: Introduction Section-Survey Project
Objectives for Lab 10:
1. Review the literature
2. State the purpose of the study
3. Give theoretical implications of the study
4. Define your variables
5. State hypotheses and their rationales
Prelab – Outline for Introduction Section (3 points)
Complete this outline prior to lab. Your TA will check to make sure you have completed this. You
may write in fragments for the outline.
Literature review-Article 1 (previous research)
 Summarize the main features of the methodology from your first article

Summarize the relevant findings from your first article (key word “relevant”-not all of them)

Summarize the conclusions of these findings
Literature review-Article 2 (previous research)
 Summarize the main features of the methodology from your second article

Summarize the relevant findings from your second article (key word “relevant”-not all of them)

Summarize the conclusions of these findings
Current survey study (YOUR STUDY)-What did you do in your study and why?
 Why did you do the current study? Why is it important to study this?
 Is it a recognized problem? (or potential problem) OR Is there conflicting literature in
the area? (leaves questions to be addressed)

What was done in the current study?
 What were the variables of interest?
 What was the methodology (generally speaking)? Hint: we are working on the survey
project …
Hypotheses
 What do you expect to find? (you did these in the previous lab… if they were done correctly,
copy them below)
 (Group difference) It was hypothesized …
 (Correlation) It was hypothesized …
 Why? (Rationale)
Lab Report:




Using your outline, review the prior research (both articles), explain what was done and why, and
give your specific hypotheses (including rationale) by turning your fragments into whole
sentences and full paragraphs (complete with transitions). The key here is to integrate both articles
in such a way that your research question and hypotheses are logical questions to be studied. (If
you are having problems or are feeling “stuck,” look at the introductions of other articles to see
how those authors did this.
Do not use a heading for the introduction section (but remember your name and TA name).
Remember to cite references in the introduction carefully and correctly
 No first names, titles of articles, titles of journals
 Does “et al.” apply to your references?
Save often and check to make sure you have followed all of the computer lab and formatting
rules!
Lab 10 Grading Rubric & Formatting Information
Grading Rubric
Pts
Pts
Item
possible earned
3
Outline completed (Prelab)
4
Literature review (both background articles), citations correct
Methodology
Findings
Conclusions
2
Current study (your small group study)
Method
Variables
Rationale
2
State hypotheses
2
Formatting (see below)
Formatting
Headings correct (as applicable)
1” margins on top, bottom, and sides
Double spacing
Correct font and font size
No blank lines within text
Indented paragraphs
Name: Last name on file, submit to Canvas, and first and last in Word file
Lab 11: Methods Section-Survey Project
Objectives for Lab 11:
1. Clean survey data
2. Describe your participants
3. Describe your materials
4. Calculate internal consistency reliability for your existing scale
5. Describe your procedure
Prelab – Outline for Method Section (3 points)
Complete this outline prior to lab. Your TA will check to make sure you have completed this. You may
write in fragments for the outline.
Participants
 Think about what statistics you need to run here-you will get this information in lab when you
actually run the data.
 How many total participants did you collect? (as a group)
 Who were the participants?
 Gender:
 Age:
 3rd demographic question:
_
th
 4 demographic question:
_
Materials
 Describe your existing scale
 Name (don’t forget to cite your source), number of items, sample item, response options,
internal consistency reliability
 Describe the items you created
 Number of opinion questions and an example (one you used)
 Number of demographic questions and an example (one you used)
Procedure
 How did you collect the data?
Cleaning the data:






From Qualtrics account, select your survey from the list
 ***Please wait for your TA for helpful hints on data management***
Click Data & Analysis tab (across the top of the window)
Click Export/Import (button on the right) and select Export Data
Select the Download Data Table option on the left
Choose to download as an SPSS file and click Download
You will have to do a little data cleaning, changing “string” variables in numerical variables,
adding value labels, etc. The TAs will show you how to do this.
Analyzing the data:
(Alpha for your existing SCALE)





Click on the Analyze menu, down to Scale, over to Reliability Analysis
Shift your items (e.g., SWL1, SWL2, SWL3, SWL4, & SWL5) in the Items box
The Model should default to “Alpha” – if it is not, use the pull-down menu to highlight Alpha
In the box next to “Scale label:” type your scale name
Click ok.
Reading the SPSS output:
(This is only sample data, do not use these numbers!!!)








(Mean and standard deviation for CONTINUOUS variables)
Click on the Analyze menu, down to Descriptive Statistics, over to Descriptives
Shift your continuous participant variables (e.g., age) in the Variable(s) box
Click on the Options box on the right side
 Make sure that Mean and Std. Deviation are checked
 Click Continue
Click ok.
(Frequencies or percentages for CATEGORICAL variables)
Click on the Analyze menu, down to Descriptive Statistics, over to Frequencies
Shift your nominal participant variables (e.g., gender) in the Variable(s) box
Make sure the Display frequency tables box is CHECKED
Click ok.
Lab Report:
 Using your outline, describe the participants, materials, and procedure by turning your fragments
into whole sentences and full paragraphs (complete with transitions).
 Use a heading for the Method section and subheadings for Participants, Materials, and
Procedure (remember your name and TA name).
 Carefully and correctly report all test statistics.
 You must italicize M and SD
 Make sure to turn in your SPSS output for your analyses with the rest of this lab (if you do not
turn in the output, your paper will not be graded!)
 Save often and check to make sure you have followed all of the computer lab and formatting
rules!
Lab 11 Grading Rubric & Formatting Information
Grading Rubric
Pts
Pts
Items
possible earned
3
Outline completed (Prelab)
3
Participants
4
Gender, age
Demographic questions
Materials
DV Scale and alpha
Opinion and demographic questions
1
Procedure
How, where, when data collected
2
Formatting
Formatting (see below)
Headings (and subheadings) correct (as applicable)
1” margins on top, bottom, and sides
Double spacing
Correct font and font size
No blank lines within text
Indented paragraphs
Name: Last name on file, submit to Canvas, and first and last in Word file
Lab 12: Results Section – Survey Project
Objectives for Lab 12:
1. Restate your hypotheses
2. Test your hypotheses with the appropriate statistic
 Run a t-test in SPSS
 Run a correlation in SPSS
Prelab – Outline for Results Section (3 points)
Complete this outline prior to lab. Your TA will check to make sure you have completed this. You
may write in fragments for the outline.
Restate your group difference hypothesis
 It was hypothesized …
***This is for your reference only. You will not write this part in your paper.***
What test statistic are you running? Why?

What will a t-test tell us?

How will we know if it is statistically significant?
 What if we get a significant t-test? What does this mean?
 What if we get a non-significant t-test? What does this mean?
Restate your correlation hypothesis
 It is hypothesized …
***This is for your reference only. You will not write this part in your paper.***
What test statistic are you running? Why?

What will r tell us?

How will we know if it is statistically significant?
 What if we get a significant r? What does this mean?
 What if we get a non-significant r? What does this mean?
Analyzing the data:

(t-test for group difference)
Click on the Analyze menu, down to Compare Means, over to Independent Samples TTest
 Click on your participant variable (__________________________) and shift it with the arrow over
to Grouping Variable box
 Click Define Groups

Enter 1 in the Group 1 box
o (Note: This must match the numbers you use to define the variables in the dataset)

Enter 2 in the Group 2 box
 (Note: This must match the numbers you use to define the variables in the dataset)
i.
Click continue
3. Click on your DV scaled score (____________________) and shift it with the arrow to
Test Variable(s) box
4. Click ok
APA format for reporting statistics:
For t-tests, you need to report the test statistic (t), the degrees of freedom (df) in
parentheses, and the p value or significance level.
• The format is t(df) = _,
p =.05.
• Using our table above, t(28) = -2.61, p =.014.
o (Note: We want to report actual p-values when they are significant.)
For the purposes of our hypothetical hypothesis, we are interested in gender differences in selfreported life satisfaction.
Since the t-test is significant, we can report the means and standard deviations of men and women
(from the output on the Group Statistics table):
EXAMPLE: Men reported higher levels of life satisfaction (M = 3.40, SD = 1.45)
compared to women (M = 2.13, SD= 1.19), t(28) = -2.61, p =.014, as seen in Figure 1.
NOTE: We can also reference a bar chart so that our readers can see this visually (see
section below for details).
If our t-test was not significant, we would not report means and standard deviations, we would not
reference a bar chart, but we would still report our test statistic:
EXAMPLE: Men and women did not differ in their levels of life satisfaction, t(28) =
-0.613, p >.05.
Analyzing the data:
(r for correlation)




Click on the Analyze menu, down to Correlate, over to Bivariate
Click on your predictor variable (_______________________) and shift it with the arrow
over to the Variables box
Click on your outcome variable (____________________________) and shift it
with the arrow over to the Variable box
Click ok
First thing to note, this table gives you the same information twice. That is, the information above the
diagonal is the same as that below the diagonal.
Also, correlation tables in SPSS put stars (*, **) by the statistically significant
correlations-to help you read the table ☺
APA format for reporting statistics:
For r, you need to report the test statistic (r, usually rounded to two decimal places) and the
p value or significance level.


The format is r= _,
p = .05.
Using our table above r = -.43, p = .019.
o (Note: We want to report actual p-values when they are significant.)
For the purposes of our hypothetical hypothesis, we are interested in the relationship between life
satisfaction and depression.
EXAMPLE: Life satisfaction was negatively correlated with depression, such that
participants who reported higher life satisfaction reported lower levels of depression, r =
-.43, p =.019 (as seen in Figure 2).
NOTE: We can also reference a scatterplot so that our readers can see this visually (see
section below for details).
If our correlation was not significant, we would not describe the strength or direction, we would
not reference a scatterplot, but we would still report our test statistic:
EXAMPLE: Life satisfaction was not significantly correlated with depression, r = .03, p >.05.
Making a bar chart:
(group difference)





Click on Graphs, down to Legacy dialogs, over to Bar
Click on Simple, Summaries for Groups of Cases, and hit Define
Click on your group difference variable (____________________________) and shift it with
the arrow over to the Category Axis box
Click
on other statistic (e.g., mean), click on your DV scaled score variable and shift it with
‘——-‘
the arrow over to the Variable box.
Click on ok
Making a scatterplot:
(correlation)





Click on Graphs, down to Legacy dialogs, over to Scatter/Dot
Click on Simple Scatter and hit Define
Click on your predictor variable (_________________________) and shift it with the arrow
over to the x-axis box
Click on your outcome variable (_______________________) and shift it with the arrow over
to the y-axis box
Click on ok
Once you have made the scatterplot
• Double-click anywhere inside the graph (a chart editor will pop up)
• Click on Elements, down to Fit Line at Total
o This will draw the best-fitting line, representing your r-square value. You can
close the chart editor and the line will stay in your scatterplot.
Lab Report:





Using your outline, restate your hypotheses and report the statistical tests of your hypotheses
in the order you presented them in the introduction.
Use a heading for the Results section (remember your name and TA name).
Make a clear statement that your results DO or DO NOT support your
hypotheses
o Group differences

If it is significant, report descriptive information (means and standard
deviations) about the differences between your groups
• Make reference to these differences graphically, by referring to the
bar chart that you created in SPSS. Make sure to refer to the Figure in
your text.

If it is not significant, do not interpret your t-test. And do not
reference a bar chart (don’t include it)
o Correlation

If significant, follow this up with the meaning of your correlation (e.g.,
describe the strength and direction of the relationship).
• Make reference to this relationship graphically, by referring to the
scatterplot that you created in SPSS. Make sure to refer to the
Figure in your text.

If it is not significant, do not interpret your correlation. And do not
reference a scatterplot (don’t include it)
o Copy and paste the graphs onto their own Figure pages and write figure captions. If
none of your statistical tests were significant, you will not have any figures.
o Make sure to turn in your SPSS output for your analyses with the rest of this lab
(if you do not turn in the output, your paper will not be graded!)
Carefully and correctly report all test statistics.
o You must italicize p, r, t and F.
o You also must italicize M and SD.
Save often and check to make sure you have followed all of the computer lab and
formatting rules!
Lab 12: Grading Rubric and Formatting Information
Grading Rubric
Pts
Pts
possible
Earned
Item
3
Outline completed (Prelab)
1
Statement of hypotheses
4
Statement/Reporting of statistics
F, df t, r, df and p correct
Descriptive information—where applicable (what do the numbers mean
in words?)
Support/does not support hypotheses
2
Figure(s) correct (if applicable)
Reference to figure(s) in text
Figure captions correct
3
Formatting (see below)
Formatting
Headings correct (as applicable)
1” margins on top, bottom, and sides
Double spacing
Correct font and font size
No blank lines within text
Indented paragraphs
Name: Last name on file, summit to Canvas, and first and last in Word file
Lab 13: Discussion Section-Survey Project
Objectives for Lab 13:
1. Assess your results
2. Link results to broader literature (including future literature)
3. Address limitations of your study
Prelab – Outline for Discussion Section (3 points)
Complete this outline prior to lab. Your TA will check to make sure you have completed this. You
may write in fragments for the outline.
Assess your results
 Restate your hypotheses (in the order you presented them in the introduction, the same order
that you tested and presented them in the results section)
It was hypothesized …
It was hypothesized …
Were they supported?
Link results to broader literature
 This section allows for more leeway-you can be creative in this part.
 What do your findings mean? (In a broader theory? In its application?)

Other potential explanations? (Is there something else that might explain your findings?
Especially if they did not support your hypotheses.)
Limitations of the study (this should be tied to some future directions)



Lab Report:

Using your outline, assess your results, place them in the broader literature, and mention
limitations and future directions of your study by turning your outline (fragments) into
whole sentences and full paragraphs (complete with transitions).




Use a heading for the Discussion section (remember your name and TA name, see p.1).
Do not report statistics in this section!
Watch your tenses-use past tense to describe your results but present tense for general
statements about human behavior.
Save often and check to make sure you have followed all of the computer lab and
formatting rules
Lab 13 Grading Rubric & Formatting Information
Grading Rubric
Pts
Pts
Possible earne
d
Item
3
Outline completed (Prelab)
2
Assess results
3
Link results to broader literature (both articles in Introduction)
Refer to hypotheses
Supported/not supported
*Watch tenses
Describe how it fits (not just that it does or doesn’t)
Alternative explanations
Correctly cite where needed
*Watch tenses
3
Limitations of study/future directions
2
Formatting (see below)
Formatting
Why are these limitations?
Explain the why you suggested the future directions
*Watch tenses
Headings correct (as applicable)
1” margins on top, bottom, and sides
Double spacing
Correct font and font size
No blank lines within text
Indented paragraphs
Name: Last name on file, summit to Canvas, and first and last in Word file
Lab 14: Abstract & Reference Section & Putting it all together-Survey Project
Paper
Objectives for Lab 14:
1. Abstract
 Content and style
2. References
 Journal article references
 Alphabetizing
 Hanging indent
3. Title page
 Content and style
4. Putting the paper together in its entirety
 All sections in the correct order
Lab Report:

Abstract
 Following the rules in Chapter 7 on Preparing the Abstract, write an abstract for your
paper. (You can go back through your old labs for key information from each
section.)
 Start with 1-2 sentences for each of the main sections and modify as necessary
(watching your word length).
 Save often and check to make sure you have followed all of the computer lab and
formatting rules!
 References
 Type out the complete references for both of your articles as well as for the article where you
obtained your existing, validated scale
 Be detailed-oriented (every little space, comma, period, italicized word means something in
this section)
 Alphabetize your references
 Use a heading for the Reference section
 Format the Reference page so that there is a “hanging indent”-the first line sticks out longer
and the following lines are indented. Your TA will show you how to do this.
 Save often and check to make sure you have followed all of the computer lab and formatting
rules!
 Title page
 Header, running head, title, author, affiliation (San Diego State University and your TAs
name here)
 Pulling the whole paper together
 For this paper, we want you to put all of the sections together in the correct order (p.95
WWS)
Lab 14 Grading Rubric & Formatting Information
Grading Rubric
Pts
Pts
possible earned
5
Item
Abstract correct
Statement of literature, rationale, and hypothesis
Summary statement of participants and procedure
Summary statement of results
Summary statement of conclusion, implications/applications
Spell check and sense check
4
References correct
2
Title page
Hanging indent
Capitalization & punctuation
Order & content of information
Running head, header, title, author, affiliation (pp. 91-94 WWS)
2
Putting it all together & Formatting
Clean copy and correct order of sections (open all of your previous sections
and combine them according to APA-style, p.95 of WWS)
Formatting
Headings correct
1” margins on top, bottom, and sides
Double spacing
Correct font and font size
No blank lines within text
Name: Last name on file, submit to Canvas, and first and last in Word file

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