NAU Eating Disorder Essay

DescriptionHS 390W – Public Health Recommendations & Conclusion
Once you have reviewed the evidence about what works and/or does not work to address your
issue, you make recommendations on what approaches you believe should be adopted to
improve health outcomes related to your topic. A couple of tips for how to do this most

This is where you get to show off what you learned in all your previous courses, as well
as what you found in your research. Think about:
o Public health model—what constitutes a public health approach and how do the
strategies you choose fit within a public health approach. This is a great website
that explains the four aspects of a public health approach and applies it to
violence prevention:
o Levels of prevention—you might consider looking at different strategies at the
different levels of prevention to address your issue from many angles.
Some professors teach three levels of prevention, others teach four. In the case
that you learned three levels, the info in Primordial was included in Primary. If
you reference the levels of prevention you can do so in a way that reflects what
you learned (either three or four levels).
o When recommending a strategy to address the issue, describe the theoretical
foundation for the strategy and explain how it demonstrates the theory in
action. If you need a refresher on theories, check out this resource:
You want to select 2-3 different strategies that you recommend be implemented to
improve health outcomes related to your issue. You can describe the
intervention/strategy in a few paragraphs. As you explain why this strategy should be
implemented to address your issue, explain why it will have positive impacts on health

outcomes. And, be sure to address how it fits within the Public Health Approach and
discuss the theoretical foundation for the approach. This should be about 3-5 paragraphs
total for each strategy.
In my view, the easiest way to organize this paper is to reference the Socio-Ecological
Model. If you apply this model to your issue and find recommend at least on evidencebased strategy at 3 levels of intervention, you will do well on this assignment.
Writing Style – comments about writing style are the same from the previous section.
APA 7th Edition, Student Paper Format – Refer to the APA 7th Edition Student Paper
formatting guidelines for your paper.
Even though you are making recommendations in this section of the paper, you must
continue to write in third person. Do not write in first person.
Sections of the Paper
25 points
DRAFT Submitted/Revised
Cover Page
APA formatted- if not formatted correctly
If not included
Public Health Recommendations & Conclusion
Highlighted a minimum of 2 strategies to improve health outcomes related to the
issue/ Effectively described the strategies and how they will positively impact health
Effectively described how each recommended strategies fits within a public health
approach. This may or may not include a reference to the levels of prevention.
Effectively describes the theoretical foundation for each strategy.
Final paragraph is the conclusion and effectively summarizes the paper. Includes
thesis restated.
-1 per page
Minimum 3 pages
Writing Style
Ideas flow logically across paragraphs
Used professional tone and language
Paraphrasing: points deducted if too many direct quotes
Grammar — points deducted for poor grammar
Spelling — points deducted for poor spelling
Written in third person, not first person — points deducted if missing
Written in active voice — points deducted if missing
APA 7th Edition, Student Paper Formatting
Font, size, general paper formatting
Use of headers & sub-headers
In-text citations (parenthetical & narrative) points deducted if missing
APA formatted Reference List (not included in page count) points deducted if missing
Credible sources
What Are The Common Themes?
Kathleen Nguyen
HS 390W
Allie Stender
March 6th, 2023
To help with the comprehension of ED “eating disorders,” a variety of themes are
included. This essay will discuss the effects of eating disorders on three themes: perfectionism,
poor self-esteem, and reckless behavior. Low self-esteem is prevalent in eating disorders because
people may have negative views of their physical bodies, which results toward feeling
discontented with their physical appearance. A person with low self-esteem may have a distorted
perception of their physique, believing it does not meet society’s criteria for beauty.
Another theme in eating disorders is perfectionism, where individual might target
physical perfection and have too much pressure where one has to live up to unachievable
standards. As people strive to achieve the “ideal” physique, this frequently results in a fixation
with eating and exercise. People with food problems often display impulsive behavior. It is
believed that the impulsivity commonly observed in people with eating problems is related to
trouble with self-control and difficulty managing feelings. Various behaviors, such as
compulsive feasting, purging, or excessive exercise, can be signs of impulsivity.
Although the interconnection between perfectionism and eating disorders has been there
before, a study confirming this interconnection has only lately been realized. According to the
current ideas, acquiring an eating disorder is more likely to occur in people with high personal
standards (PS) and high levels of concern and self-criticism. Cross-sectional studies have
demonstrated an association between the two types of perfectionism and eating disorders, but
more study is required to understand how perfectionism may be causing eating disorders.
Perfectionism is interrelated with a higher chance of developing an eating disorder, according to
longitudinal research and studies of individuals who have overcome eating disorders (Wade,
Experimental studies and research on prevention and treatment support the link between
perfectionism and a higher chance of having disordered eating. Wade (2016) makes it very
evident that perfectionism results to the development of eating issues. Wade states that to
completely understand how perfectionism impacts the advent of an eating issue, further research
is vital because the instruments of action are intricate. Additionally, it is vital to understand how
varying perfectionism, as faced to other variables of risk and maintenance where they might be
vital towards averting and treating ED.
According to Hewitt et al. (2015), perfectionism is interconnected with to ED symptoms,
negative body perception, and low self-esteem regarding college students looks. The “Eating
Attitudes Test, the Bulimia Test, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire,” among other selfesteem measures were all administered to the feminine university students and the results
showed that self-based perfectionism was interrelated only toward anorexic symptoms, while the
societal facades of perfectionism, mainly communally set perfectionism along the
“perfectionistic self-presentation dimensions,” were interrelated with body image avoidance,
self-esteem, and eating disorder symptoms.
This research show that perfectionism might play significant roles in the emergence of
ED (Hewitt et al., 2015). Feelings of meagerness and the need to achieve perfection through
reaching unachievable standards might be an outcome of perfectionism. As a result, people
might start participating in harmful habits like bingeing, purging, and limiting eating to meet
their standards. Furthermore, it was discovered that socially mandated perfectionism was
connected to self-esteem and body image avoidance, indicating that social pressure to meet
expectations may also play important roles in the emergence of ED. In conclusion, this research
lends credence to the hypothesis that perfectionism is linked to ED symptoms, self-esteem, and
body image among college students. To develop effectual prevention and therapy methods, it is
critical to understand how perfectionism contributes to the emergence of eating disorders.
Low Self-Esteem
According to Colmsee et al. (2021), the relationship among poor self-esteem and the
emergence of eating disorders is complicated and merits more research. According to research,
eating disorders and low self-esteem are significantly and relevantly correlated, with the impact
being more significant for females and shorter time intervals between measurements. Colmsee et
al., (2021) states that poor self-esteem, particularly amongst females, is a substantial risk aspect
for the rise of ED.
Low self-esteem can appear in various ways, such as thinking negatively about oneself or
feeling weak or unworthy. Low self-esteem frequently leads to the development of harmful
coping mechanisms, such as emotional eating or calorie restriction, which can result in an eating
problem (Colmsee et al., 2021). Additionally, individuals with poor self-esteem have more
chances of experiencing bullying and negative signals about their bodies from others, which can
aid in an eating problem.
Dealing with low self-esteem is challenging because deeper problems like melancholy,
anxiety, and trauma frequently accompany it. A comprehensive strategy should be used to treat
the root causes of poor self-esteem while teaching individuals techniques to help them become
more conscious of their thoughts and emotions. In this respect, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
(CBT) is wildly successful because it encourages people to question and alter negative thought
patterns. Creating a supportive atmosphere, developing good interactions, and participating in
activities that boost self-esteem can also be advantageous.
Globally, low self-esteem is a major issue that numerous individuals face. It can show up
in many different forms, including eating problems. Despite having a minority, about a third of
the population being depressed, Silverstone showed that there were various individuals with
eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa who had poor self-esteem (Silverstone,
2016). This study implies that poor self-esteem can be a sign of other mental health conditions,
like eating problems, and is not always a result of melancholy. The research demonstrates the
complexity of poor self-esteem and that it is more than just a sign of melancholy. It is
conceivable that a person’s surroundings, upbringing, and present conditions contribute to their
low self-esteem.
An eating problem’s psychological and bodily consequences can worsen low self-esteem.
This issue could start a negative cycle because the person might start to withdraw and become
more judgmental, making them feel even worse about themselves (Silverstone, 2016). The
study’s results are significant because they support the idea that poor self-esteem is not always
the result of depression but can also be a sign of other mental health problems. A customized
therapy strategy necessary for a full recovery can be created by determining the underlying
causes of poor self-esteem. A thorough strategy for treatment should incorporate social and
emotional support from family and friends and psychological treatments like cognitive
behavioral therapy and mindful meditation.
Impulsive Conduct
A complicated idea, impulsivity encompasses a range of behaviors and actions (Waxman,
2019). It is defined by a propensity to act without thinking through the repercussions of the
action and is frequently regarded as a sign of inadequate self-control. Lack of planning, difficulty
postponing satisfaction, difficulty managing feelings, and difficulty fighting temptations are just
a few examples of how impulsivity can present itself. A recent study has indicated that
impulsivity can be split into reward sensitivity and rash-spontaneous impulsiveness.
According to Gray’s psychology theory, reward sensitivity is defined as a propensity to
seek benefits despite possible dangers. On the other hand, rash-spontaneous impulsiveness is
defined as a propensity to act without taking action’s effects into account (Waxman, 2019). These
impetuous traits have been connected to drug abuse and excessive eating. More impulsive people
are likelier to participate in these behaviors because they frequently lack the restraint or foresight
to repress the impulse. Serious repercussions from this lack of restraint may include addiction
and mental health problems.
Impulsive behavior has been identified as a critical characteristic of people with food
problems (Dawe & Loxton, 2014). (EDs). This comprehensive survey of the literature examines
impulsivity in people with EDs in terms of its frequency and effects. The studies obtained from
Embase and Pubmed were done on people over 18 with an ED diagnostic, and they were written
up within the last ten years. The evaluation included 12 papers with various methodological
standards. According to the results, impulsivity is best measured using various self-report,
behavioral, and bodily measurements (Dawe & Loxton, 2014). Also, the findings state that
recklessness separates people with EDs from controls and across diagnostic categories.
Dawe & Loxton (2014) indicated that impulsivity indicated ED intensity and persistence.
This study’s results significantly affect how we comprehend and handle EDs. The evaluation and
treatment of impulsivity are crucial for effective treatment because it is a hallmark of EDs. To
accurately gauge a patient’s impulsivity and facilitate more effective therapy, therapists should
evaluate impulsivity using self-report, behavioral, and physiological measures. According to the
latest research, treating restlessness in patients with EDs may improve their prognoses.
Best Practices
ED is a complex disorders that can affect individuals from any culture, age, or gender.
According to studies, the growth of ED can be effected by several personality characteristics,
even though the causes of eating disorders are not entirely known. One characteristic that has
been acknowledged as a risk aspect for ED is impulsive behavior. Other traits include rigidity
and poor self-esteem. Here are a few tips for controlling eating disorder-related impulsivity,
rigidity, and poor self-esteem.
ED frequently reveal impulsive behavior, defined by trouble postponing gratification, the
lack of self-control, and indulging in actions that are not always in one’s best interests. It is
critical to understand that reckless behavior can be an indicator of and a risk factor for eating
disorders. Practice self-awareness and self-regulation to control reckless behavior linked to an
eating problem. Recognizing and comprehending one’s ideas, emotions, and behaviors allows for
greater control over them. In order to curb impulsivity, self-regulation entails using techniques
like deep breathing, progressive muscular relaxation, and awareness. Getting assistance from a
mental health expert who can offer the support and direction you need is also crucial.
However, perfectionism is mostly considered as a positive aspect where it can raise the
risk of having ED because it can bring about feelings of humiliation and remorse when one
cannot achieve the high standards set. It is important to comprehend perfectionism as ED
symptom and a risk factor. It is crucial to exercise self-compassion and self-acceptance to handle
perfectionism brought on by an eating problem. While self-acceptance entails embracing one’s
flaws, self-compassion entails being kind and understanding to oneself. Getting assistance from a
mental health expert who can offer the support and direction you need is also crucial.
ED mostly unveil low self-esteem, which is a combination of feelings of inadequacy,
worthlessness, and fear. It is crucial to understand that poor self-esteem can be an eating disorder
sign and a risk factor. Positive self-talk and self-esteem-boosting tasks should be practiced in
order to handle low self-esteem brought on by an eating disorder. While self-esteem-boosting
activities involve doing things that make one feel capable and valued, positive self-talk entails
speaking positively and affirmingly to oneself. Getting assistance from a mental health expert
who can offer the support and direction you need is also crucial.
Professional Organizations
Every year, from February 27 to March 5, Eating Disorder Awareness Week (EDAW) is
held to teach people about eating disorders. ED can carry severe aftermaths, which impact people
of all origins, genders, ages, and physical types (ANAD, 2023). The ANAD’s free Eating
Disorders Helpline is accessible to offer assistance, respond to inquiries, and direct patients to
therapy. It is critical to recognize the early indicators of an eating problem, which include abrupt
changes in eating patterns, mood fluctuations, and obsession with food and appearance. If a
person is having issues with ED, it is vital to find support through therapy.
EDAW is a time to increase awareness of the causes and consequences of eating
disorders and offers comfort and encouragement to anyone struggling with one. To aid in the
dissemination of knowledge and awareness, educational events, activities, and tools are
accessible. It’s also a time to reflect on how far we’ve come in our knowledge of and approach to
addressing mental health problems, as well as to offer assistance to those who are still in need.
Eating Disorder Awareness Week aims to increase knowledge of and acceptance of these
frequently misunderstood disorders while also offering tools and assistance to those impacted.
By raising consciousness, we can guarantee that no one has to suffer in silence and work to build
a more accepting and understanding community.
The Mayo Clinic is a different group focusing on eating disorders and offers
appointments in Florida, Minnesota, and Arizona. The organization describes the therapy for
eating disorders. According to the organization, treatment for eating disorders is crucial for
controlling and resolving the signs of an eating disorder (Mayo Clinic, 2017). It typically entails
cognitive behavioral therapy, dietary instruction, medical supervision, and occasionally
medicines. The course of treatment is individualized based on the patient’s specific condition and
symptoms, and if necessary, hospitalization or a residential program may be required.
ED therapy aims toward managing and reducing ED symptoms and getting back to a fit
body while also maintaining emotional and physical health. Psychological counseling enables
patients to comprehend the root causes of their eating disorders and create coping mechanisms.
Thanks to nutrition instruction, they better understand how to nourish their bodies with the right
foods and develop healthy eating practices. Medical supervision ensures that health problems
connected to eating habits are recognized and addressed. Finally, some eating problems may
benefit from the use of medicines. Treatment for food disorders is a critical stage in the healing
process overall. People can handle their symptoms more effectively, keep a healthy lifestyle, and
recuperate permanently with the correct therapy strategy.
Finally, it should be noted that eating disorders are severe and intricate mental health
problems that can impact individuals of all ages, genders, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
Perfectionism, low self-esteem, and impulsive conduct are all primary traits of ED and risk
elements for ED emergence. The ability to control these characteristics through self-awareness,
self-regulation, self-compassion, self-acceptance, positive self-talk, and participating in activities
that boost one’s self-esteem must be understood. Getting assistance from a mental health expert
who can offer the support and direction you need is also crucial.
ANAD. (2023). Eating Disorder Awareness Week.
Colmsee, I. S. O., Hank, P., & Bošnjak, M. (2021). Low self-esteem is a risk factor for eating
disorders. Zeitschrift für Psychologie.
Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L., & Ediger, E. (2015). Perfectionism traits and perfectionistic self‐
presentation in eating disorder attitudes, characteristics, and symptoms. International
Journal of eating disorders, 18(4), 317-326.
Mayo Clinic. (2017, July 14). Eating disorder treatment: Know your options.
Dawe, S., & Loxton, N. J. (2014). The role of impulsivity in the development of substance use
and eating disorders. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 28(3), 343–351.
Silverstone, P. H. (2016). Low self-esteem in eating disordered patients in the absence of
depression. Psychological Reports, 67(1), 276–278.
Wade, T. D., O’Shea, A., & Shafran, R. (2016). Perfectionism and eating
disorders. Perfectionism, health, and well-being, pp. 205–222.
Waxman, S. E. (2019). A systematic review of impulsivity in eating disorders. European Eating
Disorders Review: The Professional Journal of the Eating Disorders Association, 17(6),

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