MGT301-organizational behavior- project-work environment in google

Description

the project is power point slides talking about work environment in google. first slide should have Saudi electronic university logo, group 1 and the title (work environment in google) .  
3 slides for each subject below:
1-Company introduction 
2-Google Culture
3-Google Organizational Structure
4-Leadership 
5-Learning and Decision Making
6-Teams
7-Trust, Justice, Ethics
8-Motivation 
9-Stress 
10-Job Satisfaction .
11-Conclusion.Chapter 1
What Is Organizational
Behavior?
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Class Agenda
What is organizational behavior?
Does organizational behavior matter?
How do we “know” what we know about organizational
behavior?
Summary: Moving Forward in this Book
©McGraw-Hill Education.
What Is Organizational Behavior?
Think of the single worst coworker you’ve ever had.
• What did he or she do that was so bad?
Think of the single best coworker you’ve ever had.
• What did he or she do that was so good?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
1 of 2
What Is Organizational Behavior?
2 of 2
A field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and
ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals
and groups in organizations
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 1-1 Integrative Model of Organizational
Behavior
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Does Organizational Behavior Matter?
Do firms that do a good job managing organizational behavior
concepts become more profitable as a result?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 1-2 What Makes a Resource Valuable?
The resource-based view
of the firm
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 1-2 Survey Questions Designed to Assess HighPerformance Work Practices
Survey Question about Organizational Behavior Practice
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Covered in Chapter
What is the proportion of the workforce whose jobs have been subjected
to a formal job analysis?
2
What is the proportion of the workforce who are administered attitude
surveys on a regular basis?
4
What is the proportion of the workforce who have access to company
incentive plans, profit-sharing plans, and/or gain-sharing plans?
6
What is the average number of hours of training received by a typical
employee over the last 12 months?
8, 10
What is the proportion of the workforce who have access to a formal
grievance procedure and/or complaint resolution system?
7
What proportion of the workforce are administered an employment test
prior to hiring?
9, 10
What is the proportion of the workforce whose performance appraisals are
used to determine compensation?
6
Source: Adapted from M.A. Huselid, “The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Turnover,
Productivity, and Corporate Financial Performance.” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38, pp. 635-72.
Copyright © 1995. Academy of Management.
Table 1-3 The “100 Best Companies
to Work For” in 2019
©McGraw-Hill Education.
1. Hilton
25. Cheesecake Factory
49. T-Mobile US
2. Salesforce
26. Deloitte
57. Nationwide
3. Wegmans
28. SAP America
60. SAS Institute
4. Workday
31. Marriott
61. Accenture
6. Cisco
32. Hyatt
62. Goldman Sachs
7. Edward Jones
34. EY
70. Atlassian
10. Boston Consulting
36. KPMG
78. Kronos
12. Publix
39. Capital One
89. Four Seasons
13. American Express
42. Dropbox
95. FedEx
14. Quicken Loans
44. PricewaterhouseCoopers
96. Activision Blizzard
22. Adobe
45. Genentech
97. Delta
24. Intuit
46. REI
100. Patagonia
Source: M.C. Bush and S. Lewis-Kulin, “The 100 Best Companies to Work For.” Fortune, March 15, 2017.
So What’s So Hard?
The Rule of One-Eighth
“One must bear in mind that one-half of organizations won’t believe
the connection between how they manage their people and the
profits they earn. One-half of those who do see the connection will
do what many organizations have done—try to make a single
change to solve their problems, not realizing that the effective
management of people requires a more comprehensive and
systematic approach. Of the firms that make comprehensive
changes, probably only about one-half will persist with their
practices long enough to actually derive economic benefits.”
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
1 of 7

Where does the knowledge in this textbook come from?
Understanding that requires an understanding of how we know
things in general.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
2 of 7
How do we know about what causes:
• People to stay healthy?
• Children to grow up happy?
• Employees to be satisfied with their jobs?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
3 of 7
Methods of Knowing
• Experience
• Intuition
• Authority
• Science
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 1-3 The Scientific Method
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Scientific Interests
1 2
STRONGLY
DISAGREE
DISAGREE
3 4
NEUTRAL
AGREE
5
STRONGLY
AGREE
1. I think being a scientist would be an interesting career path.
2. Working as a scientist is something I could see myself enjoying.
3. A scientific career path could be engaging, even if the work took a long time
to finish.
4. Working with other scientists to make important discoveries would offer
meaning.
5. Studying scientific knowledge to solve problems would be intrinsically
satisfying.
Average Score: 15
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
4 of 7
What is a “theory”?
A collection of assertions—both verbal and symbolic—that specify
how and why variables are related, as well as the conditions in
which they should (and should not) be related
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
5 of 7
Consider the theory diagram shown above. It explains why two “independent variables”
(the quality of a movie’s script and the fame of its stars) affect a “dependent variable”
(how much the movie makes at the box office).
In groups, build a theory similar to the one shown, for each outcome.
• Job satisfaction
• Strain
• Motivation
• Trust in supervisor
Is organizational behavior common sense?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
6 of 7
To test our theory, we gather data on the variables included in our
hypotheses.
We then use variants of the correlation coefficient to test hypotheses, to
see if they verify our theory.
The correlation is as follows:
Perfect positive relationship: 1
Perfect negative relationship: -1
Strength of the correlation inferred from judging the compactness of a
scatterplot of the X-Y values
More compact = stronger correlation
Less compact = weaker correlation
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 1-4 Three Different Correlation Sizes
1 of 3
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Figure 1-4 Three Different Correlation Sizes
2 of 3
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Figure 1-4 Three Different Correlation Sizes
3 of 3
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Table 1-4 Some Notable Correlations
©McGraw-Hill Education.
CORRELATION BETWEEN
Height and weight
Ibuprofen and pain reduction
Antihistamines and reduced sneezing
Smoking and lung cancer within 25 years
r
.44
.14
.11
.08
SAMPLE SIZE
16,948
8,488
1,023
3,956
Coronary bypass surgery and 5-year survival
.08
2,649
Source: Robert Hogan, “In Defense of Personality Measurement: New Wine for Old Whiners.” Human Performance, Vol. 18, 2005, pp. 331–41.
The Correlation
1 of 2
How big is “big”?
• What’s the correlation between height and weight?
• Will the correlation between job satisfaction and job performance
be higher or lower?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
The Correlation
2 of 2
Important disclaimer
• Correlation does not prove causation.
Proving causation requires:
• Correlation
• Temporal precedence
• Elimination of alternative explanations
©McGraw-Hill Education.
How Do We “Know” What We Know about
Organizational Behavior?
7 of 7
The correlations from multiple studies get averaged together
using meta-analysis.
Meta-analyses can then form the foundation for evidence-based
management—the use of scientific findings to inform
management practice.
Well-supported theories become helpful tools for answering why
questions, like:
• Why your best and worst coworkers act so differently
• Why you sometimes think, feel, and act a certain way
©McGraw-Hill Education.
OB on Screen
Moneyball
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Summary: Moving Forward in this Book
The following chapters work through the integrative model of OB:
• Beginning with the individual outcomes
• Continuing with the individual, group, and organizational
mechanisms that lead to those outcomes
Each chapter ends with three sections:
• A summarizing theory diagram
• Results of meta-analyses that summarize relationships between
that chapter’s topic and both job performance and organizational
commitment
• Description of how the content of that chapter can be applied, at
a specific level, in an actual organization
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Introspection
Average Score: 26
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Source: Adapted from A. Fenigstein, M.F. Scheier, and A.H.
Buss, “Public and Private Self-Consciousness: Assessment and
Theory.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 43,
August 1975, pp. 522–27. American Psychological Association.
Next Time
Chapter 2: Job Performance
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 2
Job Performance
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Class Agenda
Job performance
What Does It Mean to Be a “Good Performer”?
• Task performance
• Citizenship behavior
• Counterproductive behavior
Trends Affecting Performance
• Knowledge Work
• Service Work
Application: Performance Management
©McGraw-Hill Education.
An Integrative Model of Organizational Behavior
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Job Performance
The value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute,
either positively or negatively, to organizational goal
accomplishment
Not the consequences or results of behavior—the behavior
itself
• What’s good about this distinction?
• What’s bad about this distinction?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
What Does It Mean to Be a “Good Performer”?
Categories of behavior relevant to job performance
• Task performance
• Citizenship behavior
• Counterproductive behavior
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Task Performance
1 of 3
The behaviors directly involved in transforming organizational
resources into the goods or services an organization produces
(i.e., the behaviors included in one’s job description)
Typically a mix of:
• Routine task performance
• Adaptive task performance
• Creative task performance
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 2-1 Behaviors Involved in Adaptability
BEHAVIORS
SPECIFIC EXAMPLES
Handling emergencies or
crisis situations
Quickly analyzing options for dealing with danger or crises and their
implications; making split-second decisions based on clear and focused thinking
Handling work stress
Remaining composed and cool when faced with difficult circumstances or a
highly demanding workload or schedule; acting as a calming and settling
influence to whom others can look for guidance
Solving problems creatively Turning problems upside-down and inside-out to find fresh new approaches;
integrating seemingly unrelated information and developing creative solutions
Dealing with uncertain and Readily and easily changing gears in response to unpredictable or unexpected
unpredictable work
events and circumstances; effectively adjusting plans, goals, actions, or
situations
priorities to deal with changing situations
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Learning work tasks,
technologies, and work
situations
Quickly and proficiently learning new methods or how to perform previously
unlearned tasks; anticipating change in the work demands and searching for
and participating in assignments or training to prepare for these changes
Demonstrating
interpersonal adaptability
Being flexible and open-minded when dealing with others; listening to and
considering others’ viewpoints and opinions and altering one’s own opinion
when it’s appropriate to do so
Demonstrating cultural
adaptability
Willingly adjusting behavior or appearance as necessary to comply with or
show respect for others’ values and customs; understanding the implications of
one’s actions and adjusting one’s approach to maintain positive relationships
with other groups, organizations, or cultures
Source: Adapted from E.E. Pulakos, S. Arad, M.A. Donovan, and K.E. Plamondon, “Adaptability in
the Workplace: Development of a Taxonomy of Adaptive Performance,” Journal of Applied
Psychology 85 (2000), pp. 612–24. American Psychological Association.
Task Performance
2 of 3
How do we identify relevant behaviors?
Job analysis
• Generate a list of the activities involved in a job.
• Rate the tasks on frequency and importance.
• Use most frequent and important tasks to define task performance.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Task Performance
3 of 3
Exercise: Performance of a server
Do a job analysis
• List four major dimensions of the job.
• Identify two tasks per dimension
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2-1 O*NET Results for Flight Attendants
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Source: O-Net
Citizenship Behavior
Academic origin
A future professor’s account of an experience in a paper mill:
“…while the man’s assistance was not part of his job and gained him no
formal credits, he undeniably contributed in a small way to the
functioning of the group and, by extension, to the plant and the
organization as a whole. By itself, of course, his aid to me might not have
been perceptible in any conventional calculus of efficiency, production, or
profits. But repeated many times over, by himself and others, over time,
the aggregate of such actions must certainly have made that paper mill a
more smoothly functioning organization than would have been the case
had such actions been rare.”
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2-2 Types of Citizenship Behaviors
Voluntary activities that may or
may not be rewarded but that
contribute to the organization by
improving the quality of the
setting where work occurs
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Interpersonal Citizenship Behaviors
Helping
Assisting new coworkers or those with heavy workloads
Courtesy
Keeping coworkers informed about matters that are relevant to
them
Sportsmanship
Maintaining a positive attitude with coworkers
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Helping
Average score: 40
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Source: L.V. Van Dyne and J.A. LePine, “Helping and Voice Extra-Role Behaviors: Evidence of Construct and Predictive Validity,” Academy of Management Journal 41 (1998), pp. 108–19.
Sportsmanship
1 2
STRONGLY
DISAGREE
DISAGREE
3 4
NEUTRAL
AGREE
5
STRONGLY
AGREE
1. I never complain about “the small stuff.”
2. I voice support for what’s going on in the organization.
3. I focus on maintaining a positive attitude at work.
4. I tend to dwell on what’s going well, not what’s going poorly.
5. I focus on “being a good sport” even when negative things happen.
Average score: 18
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
Voice
Speaking up and offering constructive suggestions to improve unit
or organizational functioning or to address problems
Civic Virtue
Participating in the company’s operations at a deeper-than-normal
level
Boosterism
Representing the organization in a positive way when out of the
office
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2-3
Types of Counterproductive Behavior
Employee behaviors that
intentionally hinder
organizational goal
accomplishment
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Political Deviance
1 2
STRONGLY
DISAGREE
DISAGREE
3 4
NEUTRAL
AGREE
5
STRONGLY
AGREE
1. I have, at times, undermined a coworker.
2. I have, at times, blamed a coworker for something that I did.
3. I sometimes gossip about colleagues at work.
4. I sometimes distract my coworkers when they’re trying to get things done.
5. I enjoy playing “pranks” on others at work.
6. I have, at times, kept colleagues “in the dark” about things they needed to know.
Average Score: 12
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Counterproductive Behavior
1 of 2
Key questions:
• Are these all examples of the same general behavior pattern? If
you do one, are you likely to do most of the others as well?
• How does counterproductive behavior relate to task
performance and citizenship behavior?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Counterproductive Behavior
2 of 2
Answers:
• Research using both anonymous self-reports and supervisor
ratings tends to find strong correlations between the categories.
• Counterproductive behavior has a strong negative correlation with
citizenship behavior, but is only weakly related to task
performance.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
OB on Screen
Molly’s Game
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2-4 What Does It Mean to Be a “Good
Performer”?
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Trends Affecting Performance
Knowledge work
• Cognitive emphasis
• Fluid, dynamic in nature
Service work
• Growing segment providing nontangible goods to customers
• Requires direct interaction with customers
• Emphasizes need for high levels of citizenship behavior and low
levels of counterproductive behavior
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Application: Performance Management
What tools do organizations use to manage job performance
among employees?
• Management by Objectives (MBO)
• Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
• 360-degree feedback
• Forced rankings
• Social networking systems
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 2-2 BARS Example for “Planning,
Organizing, and Scheduling” 1 of 2
Rating
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Behavioral Anchors
[7] Excellent
• Develops a comprehensive project plan, documents it well, obtains
required approval, and distributes the plan to all concerned.
[6] Very Good
• Plans, communicates, and observes milestones; states week by week
where the project stands relative to plans. Maintains up-to-date charts
of project accomplishment and backlogs and uses these to optimize any
schedule modifications.
• Experiences occasional minor operational problems but communicates
effectively.
[5] Good
• Lays out all the parts of a job and schedules each part to beat schedule;
will allow for slack.
• Satisfies customer’s time constraints; time and cost overruns occur
infrequently.
[4] Average
• Makes a list of due dates and revises them as the project progresses,
usually adding unforeseen events; investigates frequent customer
complaints.
• May have a sound plan but does not keep track of milestones; does not
report slippages in schedule or other problems as they occur.
Table 2-2 BARS Example for “Planning,
Organizing, and Scheduling” 2 of 2
Rating
Behavioral Anchors
[3] Below Average
• Plans are poorly defined; unrealistic time schedules are common.
• Cannot plan more than a day or two ahead; has no concept of a
realistic project due date.
[2] Very Poor
• Has no plan or schedule of work segments to be performed.
• Does little or no planning for project assignments.
[1] Unacceptable
• Seldom, if ever, completes project because of lack of planning and
does not seem to care.
• Fails consistently due to lack of planning and does not inquire about
how to improve.
Source: D.G. Shaw, C.E. Schneier, and R.W. Beatty. “Managing Performance with a Behaviorally Based Appraisal
System,” in Applying Psychology in Business: The Handbook for Managers and Human Resource Professionals, ed.
J.W. Jones, B.D. Steffy, and D.W. Bray (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 2001), pp. 314-25
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2-5 Jack Welch’s Vitality Curve
Forced ranking under Jack Welch at GE
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Next Time
Chapter 3: Organizational Commitment
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 3
Organizational Commitment
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Class Agenda
Organizational Commitment
What Does It Mean to Be “Committed”?
• Types of Commitment
• Withdrawal Behavior
Trends Affecting Commitment
• Diversity of the Workforce
• The Changing Employee-Employer Relationship
Application: Commitment Initiatives
©McGraw-Hill Education.
An Integrative Model of Organizational Behavior
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Commitment 1 of 2
Consider this scenario:
• You’ve worked at your current employer for five years and have
recently been approached by a competing organization.
What would cause you to stay?
• Do those reasons fit into different kinds of categories?
Organizational commitment is a desire on the part of an
employee to remain a member of an organization.
• May be based on want, need, or feeling of obligation
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 3-1 Organizational Commitment and Employee
Withdrawal
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 3-1 The Three Types of Organizational
Commitment
What Makes Someone Stay with His/Her Current Organization?
AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT
(EMOTION-BASED)
CONTINUANCE COMMITMENT
(COST-BASED)
Some of my best friends work
in my office … I’d miss them if I
left.
I’m due for a promotion soon … My boss has invested so much
will I advance as quickly at the time in me, mentoring me,
new company?
training me, showing me the
ropes.
I really like the atmosphere at
my current job … it’s fun and
relaxed.
My salary and benefits get us a
nice house in our town … the
cost of living is higher in this
new area.
My organization gave me my
start … they hired me when
others thought I wasn’t
qualified.
My current job duties are very
rewarding … I enjoy coming to
work each morning.
The school system is good here,
my spouse has a good job …
we’ve really put down roots
where we are.
My employer has helped me
out of a jam on a number of
occasions … how could I leave
now?
Staying because you want to.
Staying because you need to.
Staying because you ought to.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
NORMATIVE COMMITMENT
(OBLIGATION-BASED)
Figure 3-2 Drivers of Overall
Organizational Commitment
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Affective Commitment
A desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an
organization because of an emotional attachment to, and
involvement with, that organization
• You stay because you want to.
• What would you feel if you left anyway?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Assessment on Affective Commitment
Average Score: 20
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
From N.J. Allen and J.P. Meyer, “The Measurement and Antecedents
of Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the
Organization,” Journal of Occupational Psychology 63 (1990), pp. 1-18.
Figure 3-3 A Social Network Diagram
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©McGraw-Hill Education.
Continuance Commitment 1 of 2
A desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an
organization because of an awareness of the costs associated
with leaving it
• You stay because you need to.
• What would you feel if you left anyway?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Continuance Commitment
2 of 2
1
STRONGLY
DISAGREE
2
DISAGREE
3
NEUTRAL
4
AGREE
5
STRONGLY
AGREE
1. Quitting my job would bring with it major personal sacrifice.
2. I don’t have enough employment options to consider leaving right now.
3. It’s difficult to leave the organization because I don’t have anywhere else to go.
4. Staying in my current job is more a product of circumstances than preference.
5. Leaving my job now would bring significant personal disruption.
6. Frankly, I couldn’t quit my job now, even if it’s what I wanted to do.
Average Score: 19
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 3-2 Embedded and Continuance Commitment
“Embedded” people feel:
FACET
FOR THE ORGANIZATION:
FOR THE COMMUNITY:
Links
• I’ve worked here for such a long time.
• I’m serving on so many teams and
committees.
• Several close friends and family live
nearby.
• My family’s roots are in this
community.
Fit
• My job utilizes my skills and talents
well.
• I like the authority and responsibility I
have at this company.
• The weather where I live is suitable
for me.
• I think of the community where I live
as home.
Sacrifice
• The retirement benefits provided by
the organization are excellent.
• I would sacrifice a lot if I left this job.
• People respect me a lot in my
community.
• Leaving this community would be
very hard.
Source: Adapted from T.R. Mitchell, B.C. Holtom, T.W. Lee, C.J. Sablynski, and M. Erez, “Why People Stay: Using Job
Embeddedness to Predict Voluntary Turnover,” Academy of Management Journal 44 (2001), pp. 1102-21.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Normative Commitment
1 of 2
A desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an
organization because of a feeling of obligation
• You stay because you ought to.
• What would you feel if you left anyway?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Normative Commitment
2 of 2
1 2
STRONGLY
DISAGREE
DISAGREE
3 4
NEUTRAL
AGREE
5
STRONGLY
AGREE
1. I have an obligation to stay with my company.
2. I wouldn’t quit my job right now because I owe the company too much.
3. I owe this company for the things it’s given me.
4. Leaving my job now would fill me with significant guilt.
5. It just wouldn’t be right to think about quitting my job.
6. Staying with my organization is just something that I ought to do.
Average Score: 16
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Commitment 2 of 2
Exercise: Reacting to Negative Events
• Consider the three scenarios depicted on the following slide.
• Come to consensus on two specific behaviors that capture your
likely response (that is, what you would probably do, as opposed
to what you wish you would do).
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Commitment Scenarios
Scenario
Description
Likely behaviors
Annoying Boss
You’ve been working at your current company for about a year. Over time,
your boss has become more and more annoying to you. It’s not that your
boss is a bad person, or even necessarily a bad boss. It’s more a personality
conflict–the way your boss talks, the way your boss manages every little
thing, even the facial expressions your boss uses. The more time passes, the
more you just can’t stand to be around your boss.
Two likely behaviors:
Boring Job
You’ve been working at your current company for about a year. You’ve come
to realize that your job is pretty boring. It’s the first real job you’ve ever had,
and at first, it was nice to have some money and something to do every day.
But the “new job” excitement has worn off, and things are actually quite
monotonous. Same thing every day. It’s to the point that you check your
watch every hour, and Wednesdays feel like they should be Fridays.
Two likely behaviors:
Pay and Seniority
You’ve been working at your current company for about a year. The
Two likely behaviors:
consensus is that you’re doing a great job—you’ve gotten excellent
performance evaluations and have emerged as a leader on many projects. As
you’ve achieved this high status, however, you’ve come to feel that you’re
underpaid. Your company’s pay procedures emphasize seniority much more
than job performance. As a result, you look at other members of your
project teams and see poor performers making much more than you, just
because they’ve been with the company longer.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
OB on Screen
Baby Driver
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Withdrawal
1 of 4
Around 60 percent of employees think about looking for jobs.
“When the going gets tough, the organization doesn’t want you
to get going.”
Difficult times put an employee’s commitment to the test.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Exit-Voice-Loyalty-Neglect
Common employee reactions to negative work events:
Exit
• Ending or restricting organizational membership
Voice
• A constructive response where individuals attempt to improve the
situation
Loyalty
• A passive response where the employee remains supportive
while hoping for improvement
Neglect
• Reduced interest and effort in the job
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 3-3 Four Types of Employees
Source: Adapted from R.W. Griffeth, S. Gaertner, and J.K. Sager, “Taxonomic Model of Withdrawal Behaviors: the Adaptive Response
Model,” Human Resource Management Review 9 (1999), pp. 577-90.
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Withdrawal
2 of 4
Withdrawal: a set of actions that employees perform to avoid the
work situation
• One study found that 51 percent of employees’ time was spent
working.
• The other 49 percent was allocated to coffee breaks, late starts,
early departures, personal, and other forms of withdrawal.
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Figure 3-4
Psychological and Physical Withdrawal
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Withdrawal
3 of 4
Key question:
How exactly are the different forms of withdrawal related to one
another?
• Independent forms
• Compensatory forms
• Progression
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Withdrawal
4 of 4
Answer:
• The various forms of withdrawal are almost always moderately to
strongly correlated.
• Those correlations suggest a progression, as lateness is strongly
related to absenteeism, and absenteeism is strongly correlated to
quitting.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Trends Affecting Commitment
Diversity of the workforce
• Growing more racially and ethnically diverse
• Becoming older
• Including more foreign-born workers
The changing employee-employer relationship
• Psychological contracts
• Transactional contacts
• Relational contracts
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Application: Commitment Initiatives
Employees are more committed when employers are committed
to them.
Perceived organizational support is fostered when
organizations:
• Provide rewards
• Protect job security
• Improve work conditions
• Minimize impact of politics
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Next Time
Chapter 4: Job Satisfaction
©McGraw-Hill Education.

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