MGT 422 SEU Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education Case Study Questions

Description90
Chapter 5
Relevance of Teaching
Values and Ethics in
Management Education
Damini Saini
University of Delhi, India
ABSTRACT
To understand the role of ethical education in facing the ethical challenges in organizations this chapter
provides a discussion of implications of the questions of relevance, predicament and methods of ethical
training. In the introduction author emphasizes on the reasons of focusing upon the ethical education, then
describes the ethical connection with responsibility and explores the terms values, ethics and business
ethics. Further the author describes the main focus of the chapter that is relevance of ethics in management education, what and how should ethics be taught. The chapter revolves around the responsibility
of the leaders or top management in the various areas of organization which directly or indirectly affect
their ethical and moral side of behavior and actions and highlights the importance of ethical education.
Further the author reviews the courses running in syllabus of top B Schools of India and abroad, then
finally proposes solutions and strategies to tackle the challenges.
INTRODUCTION
Ironically the never-ending list of failed corporations alleged in scams and the magnitude of their leader’s
desire for profit maximization with complete negligence to well beings of their employees and corporate
shareholders indicates the sidelined importance of values and ethics in business on both personal and
professional front. Evidently business is under pressures of competition, customers, increasing shareholders value and globalization and while trying for all those things, the corporate leaders cross the ethical
boundaries. Being the torchbearers, whether in the case of a nation or a corporation, leaders show the
path to their followers and set examples. But unfortunately many corporate leaders went behind bars (e.g.
Enron, WorldCom, Satyam case etc.) due to the wrongdoings in the firm and exemplified the immoral
and unethical leadership and this phase is still not over.
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1013-0.ch005
Copyright © 2017, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.

Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education
Some of the most observant works on ethics and leadership can be found in the old literature of east
as well as of the west. For example, classical works like Bhagvad Gita and the Republic provides knowledgeable illustrations on leadership, which can help the new perspectives on this issue (Swaroopananda,
1933; Annas, 1995). ‘Bhagvad Gita’, is a Hindu religious scripture, which is a narrative framework of
dialogues between prince Arjun and his spiritual guide Lord Krishna, it highlights and glorifies the
significance of selfless action and the character in leadership (Mahadevan, 2012; Singh, 2001), and
the Republic is a Socratic dialogue emphasizing justice and character of a just man. Besides this good
governance, qualities of true ruler and just leadership are also discussed in it (Annas, 1995).
Management by default is the main force that operates in the organization, spreads the value and
seeds the morality in the environment and as foresaid, leaders are the main role models for the employees
subsequently our business schools bear the huge responsibility to equip our future leaders with values
and ethicality in their behavior. Henceforth the related perspective phenomenon of values and ethics in
the management education manifest a huge importance in today’s corporate world.
The author begins the chapter by casting a glance on the accountability of corporate leadership then
by quoting a few brief examples from the real-life cases tries to portray dark leadership then briefly describes the theoretical concepts of values and ethics and their interrelation in the context of leadership.
Further the author investigates the place of business ethics curriculum in top 5 business schools of India
and abroad, followed by requirement of the relevant courses. Finally proposing a suggestion to tackle
the ethical challenges of leadership and how it complements and fits contemporarily.
BACKGROUND
Responsibility of Corporate Leadership towards Society
As Churchill once quoted in his great clarion call that, “responsibility is the price of greatness” (Churchill,
1943), great power is attained with a greater responsibility, top leaders being blessed with control over
thousands of decisions regarding the fate of organization and employees, also have the responsibility of all
around (The gift of a common tongue, n. d.). The most exalted personnel of the organization; who wear
the crown of success and have to bear the responsibility of failures on their shoulders, having authority
ongoing matters, shaping the organization policies, control over rewards and punishments, influencing
employees with their actions, all these things together determine the leadership into a responsible zone
and make them accountable to the employees, organization and for their own conduct (Saini & SinghSengupta, 2016).
Political leadership still represents the most visible way the term, “leadership” and their accountability
to the public is undisputed, likewise the leaders holding the top positions in the corporations have the
equivalent responsibility for their stakeholders. For an instance James Burke, former CEO of Johnson
& Johnson demonstrated highly visible action and ethical values, who was responsible for guiding the
organization through the value articulation process and for making the ideology prominent in the corporate culture, (Saini &Singh-Sengupta, 2016), in order to implement ethics in the shared values, beliefs
and attitudes of the workers in the organization (Trevino, Hartman & Brown, 2000). Ciulla (2004) stated
that in the present situation it is extremely difficult to find such business leader, despite that fact that
they should expect and hope that our leaders will not fail at meeting ethical standards, while pursuing
and achieving the goals of their constituents.
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Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education
Ethical leaders greatly influence the followers by assessing the results of their actions (Kaptein,
Huberts, Avelino & Lasthuizen, 2005), as they have a sense of responsibility for their actions, decisions
and the consequences and their followers go ahead to contribute the same behavior. Ethical behavior of
leader is really a proof of morally good behavior and that leads to success in the organization. Marcy,
Gentry, and McKinnon (2008) recommended that a leader should nourish a specific strategy to ethically influencing the followers. Ciulla (2004) also stated that a good leader is an ethical and an effective
leader. Analyzing the correlation between leadership effectiveness and ethical leadership, some previous
researchers have shown positive relationship between ethical leadership and perceived leader effectiveness
(Brown, Trevino & Harrison, 2005). In the similar manner Kouzes and Posner (2007) identified honesty
as the number one characteristic mostly identified by the leaders. Besides this, employees select their
work environments based on their ethical preferences and the connection of their values and the ability
of the leader to use those values in decision making acts, so here ethics play a vital role in effectiveness.
Nevertheless, being ethical and being effective are not necessarily found in the same leader. Some leaders were highly effective but not ethical while others were highly ethical but not necessarily effective.
For example, Bernie Ebbers, the former CEO of WorldCom in United States of America, was hailed as
a great leader for growing the company into a telecommunications superpower was later discredited for
his failure to provide ethical leadership (Trevino & Brown, 2005).
Carl Jung (1933) said that leaders do cast their psychological shadows on their followers. The other
maxim in similar vein is that leaders are best educators for their organizations. Evidently leaders of the
corporate have the natural responsibility towards the stakeholders, society and environment. Despite
that organizational wrongdoers falsify financial statements to obtain loans or to inflate a stock they plan
to sell in a “pump-and-dump scheme” (Bhasin, 2013). They fulfill their personalized needs for power,
self-aggrandizing purpose and use authority to the detriment of their subordinates and organizations
(Padilla, Hogan, & Kaiser, 2007). Becker (2009) held top business executives responsible for the current financial crisis for catalyzing risky deals or even irresponsible business operations through various
techniques. Further he claimed a genuine moral responsibility for business leaders that is complemented
by norms of corporate ethics, in addition to this he denied the role of the philosophy of self-interest and
self-preservation in recognizing ethics in business transaction and instead responds to conflicts through
evasion of responsibility. In the similar way Chemers (2014) stated that, “Authority should be commensurate with responsibility” (p. 7). These reviews strongly present the framework of effectiveness, ethics
and responsibility of the organizational leadership and in the coming section the author will consider
upon the shady facets of leadership and its challenges.
THEORETICAL CONCEPTS
If one is keen to gain an understanding of ethics and values in business education, one must acquire
conceptual knowledge, so firstly this part of the chapter inquiries about values, and then it focuses upon
ethics and business ethics as well as the mutual relationship of value and ethics.
Values
Originally, values were conceived of as philosophical concepts which were insolubly tied to virtuous
living and morality (cf. Perry, 1926) as cited in Kumar and Subramanian (2012). Values are basically
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Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education
concepts; values are the preferences that create meaning and motivation in the life. These are always a
consequence of our underlying beliefs. Presently, values are conceived of as guiding principles in life
which transcend specific situations may change over time, guide selection of behavior and events and
which are part of a dynamic system with inherent contra – dictions (Debats, & Bartelds, 1996). They are
the ideas of what gives a sense of meaning or worth, which are sometimes confused with orals, ethics,
emotions, and principles. Every individual has its own value and when both the organization and the
employee’s paces are similar the working goes smoothly without any obstacle and it boosts the individual
performance too. At the guts of every company are hundreds of decisions that are made according to
values such as innovation, customer service etc. As Henderson (2002) states in his book: “You don’t
have a choice in whether your organization works with values. You have a choice in how.” Furthermore,
Amine, Chakor and Aloui (2012) also stated that the corporate culture is marked by several values that
determine the specific nature of the company and to implement an ethical approach is reflected in the
integration of ethical dimension in organizational values.
On the other hand, Maslow (1971) considered the values like wholeness, goodness as a part of human
self. In the direct contrast to basic needs, these values definitely satisfy but under good condition such
values are integrated in daily lives by people who bring to work their values that drive their behavior
(Roe & Ester, 1999). These values are relatively stable over time and have an impact on attitudes and
behavior. Values affect one’s perception of a situation, how one relates to others, and act as guides for
choices and actions (Hitlin & Piliavin, 2004). For an instance, Jack Welch, one of the successful CEOs
of GE, asserted that the leaders of his organization should be oriented towards the organizational value
more than being highly result-oriented. He further rated GE’s top-level managers not only on their performance against goals but he made sure ‘lived up’ to the GE values.
Ethics and Business Ethics
Poulton (2005) noted that, it is a society’s quest for defining and understanding what constitutes “the
good life” or “the good [that] has rightly been declared to be that at which all things aim” (Aristotle,
350BC). Ethics is the branch of philosophy that theoretically, logically and rationally determines right
from wrong, good from bad, moral from immoral and just from unjust actions, conducts and behavior.
According to Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary, ethics is “the discipline dealing with what is good and
bad and with moral duty and obligation”, “a set of moral principles” or “A set of moral issue or aspect.”
According to Maheshwari and Ganesh (2006), “Ethics is defined as that characteristic which constitutes good and bad human conduct and that which decides what is good and evil, right and wrong”
(p.76). In broad terms, it is focused on what we ought to do as compared to what we actually do, it refers
to the “moral principles or values that generally govern the behavior of an individual or a group” (Singh,
2001, p.9). “Ethics” in simplest terms means moral conduct for living a ‘good’ life in a ‘good’ society
as the understanding of ethics today, right or wrong and good or bad in human conduct is judged by
the criteria of contribution towards the development of a ‘good life’ and a ‘good society’ (Singh, 2001,
p.12). This proves the interrelationship between the two.
More specifically, Poulton (2005) defined ethics as, “a societal discussion of what ought to be considered for overall human well-being, including the broader concepts of fairness, justice and injustice, what
rights and responsibilities are operable under certain situations, and what virtues a society admires and
wants to emphasize (p.4).” The man has derived certain principles to govern his individual and group
behavior which are in the form of behavioral standards which may differ across cultures and times but
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Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education
their basic objectives are always mutual existence and peace, by ensuring security and protection of the
group, these standards help in the survival of the particular community or a social group are called ethics (Maheshwari & Ganesh, 2006).
In order to face the challenges of identifying the righteous decision due to conflicting interests of
different stakeholders, then to guide by articulating and communicating unambiguously, regarding what
is right and what is not, a proper structures and policies are required (Maheshwari & Ganesh,2006) these
guiding policies comes under business ethics. It emerges from a series of ethical discussion that began the
early 1970 in the United States about the social responsibilities of business (Green & Donovan, 2010).
According to De George (2011), “Business Ethics as a field is defined by the interaction of ethics
and business. Business ethics is as national, international or global as business itself, and no arbitrary
geographical boundaries do limit it” (p.16). Furthermore, business ethics is about every individual in
the organization acting ethically, about creating an ethically sound working environment within the
organization and about modelling ethical behavior by leadership at all levels (Sheshadri, Raghvan &
Hegde, 2007, p.61). Business ethics examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise
in a business environment (Solomon, 1991).
Values and Ethics: Interpersonal Affair
Ethics and values are quite closely related to each other and in this part of the chapter the author will
discuss about the interpersonal relationship of these two, and to explore the connection between ethics
and values and further their impact upon the individual and professional behavior.
Values are enduring belief and if in place, it is likely that the group would endure hardships of any
kind including ‘ups & downs’ (Osiyemi, 2006). Similarly, if a work organization has a values-full culture,
that organization will be able to survive the bumps along its road. (Kuczmarski, & Kuczmarski, 1995).
Being the central desires of individuals in any social group, they are the choices that an individual makes
to enhance the quality of his or her existence. According to Schwartz (2005) ethical principles are the
rules of conduct that are derived from ethical values.’’ As an example, Asgary and Mitschow (2002, p.
242) proposed a set of fundamental values for an international Business code of ethics is based on their
review of the literature:
… trust; fairness; do not cheat; honesty; full disclosure of financial information; be responsible for your
dealings; respect national sovereignty; support the economic goals of host country; respect social and
cultural values and traditions; respect human rights and fundamental freedoms; provide equal opportunity; uphold integrity of your company; be respectful to every person contacted; uphold environmental
laws and regulations; be fair and take action not to discriminate; honor contracts, agreements, and
assigned responsibilities.
Mujtaba (2005) also established that overall, values are professed statements of one’s beliefs, ethics
is delivering on one’s professed values and morals are actions of good conduct as judged by the society
that enhance the welfare of human beings. Ethics, morals, and values (internally) and institutions (externally) guide how corporate governance is developed and implemented to benefit not only businesses
themselves but societies as a whole (Sullivan, 2009). Morality is about the believes and values that guide
people in their decisions whereas ethics is about the decision making and based upon an expressed code
of values and conduct (Armstrong & Francis 2008). Here, the main question is the identification of any
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Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education
personal quality that contributes to the relationship of personal moral stance and corporate behavior. In
addition to the various moral theories, Schwartz added that several business ethicists like Donaldson
and Dunfee have attempted to identify certain universal moral principles or values as trustworthiness
and promise-keeping are “foundational values” for most successful business relationships (1999, p. 25)
Ethical values are the set of values which are in accordance with the social norms and help in the
existence of the larger community (Maheshwari and Ganesh, 2006). Ethical problems occur when the
individual values and the social norms conflict with each other. Often, due to conflicting interests of
different stakeholders, managers in organizations face the dilemma of identifying the righteous decision
as perceived by these stakeholders. Hence, it is important to guide managers by articulating and communicating unambiguously regarding what is right and what is not (Maheshwari & Ganesh, 2006). In
the next section the focus will be on the relevance of ethical learning in the business school education.
NEED OF TEACHING ETHICS AND VALUES IN MANAGEMENT EDUCATION
The issues that are connected with ethics and values have recently acquired a huge attention in the post
Enron period in the global context due to the never-ending lists of scams and frauds that are happening
in the organizations. Unethical practices are affecting every size and type of business organization from
global conglomerates to small sized native firms in varying degrees and extents. These mortifications have
shaken the confidence and trust of the people from the corporations. From Enron to Anderson, Satyam
to 2G every scandal is a disclosure of misdeeds by our own respected business leaders and their political counterparts. Ethics and values are being spoiled by the corporations in the variety of industries and
professional fields on nearly daily basis for short term profits. The reason behind the unethical behavior
could be the complexity of the issues they deal with, and the difficulty in many instances of determining which the most ethical alternative is. Individual and groups both can lead to unethical behavior and
causes could be the pressures, conflict of interest, greed, opportunistic behavior and other phenomenon.
To cope up with the problem individual training in business ethics is required in management education, so that the future managers would be able to find solutions in the situations of ethical dilemmas,
they will have tools and techniques which can direct them in dark zones and it also induce the integrity
in their personal characters. New moral predicament keeps on developing as innovation and different
advancements grow the extent of conceivable decisions. Furthermore, as business turns out to be more
globalized and the world turn out to be more interconnected, one should likewise accommodate social
contrasts applying impact over the ethicality of choices and standard of practice. In light of the current
environment, it becomes imperative for educators to incorporate ethical decision making into their curricula in an effort to equip future leaders with tools or strategies that can be used to navigate murky areas
(Wankel, 2011). When we have to deal with integrity in management education we have to move beyond
the economic view of integrity and teach students of management a broader ethical concept of integrity
(Palmer, 2015). Numerous expert and exchange affiliations proclaim codes of morals, and sticking to
a moral code is one of the characterizing components of a calling. So it appears to be regular that an
affiliation’s instruction capacity would have a part to play in helping individuals comprehend their code
and apply it in their everyday work.
Ethics in management education is required to make individuals understand the theory and practical
implications. Many previous researches has shown the importance of ethics training in institutes (Cooke
& Ryan, 1988; Williams & Dewett, 2005), ethical training is also linked with the development of greater
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Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education
moral reasoning skills (Kavathatzopoulos, 1993), further there is a positive connection between ethical
behavior and organizational success and ethical education is most likely to enhance ethical climate in
organization (Luther, Dibatista & Gautschi, 1997), Palmer (2015) also stated that only business ethics
ensures that an organization with economic integrity can make better performance. Exposure to ethics
in the curriculum had a significant impact on student perceptions of what should be the ideal linkages
between organizational ethical practices and business outcomes (Luthar & Karri, 2005). James and
Cohen, (2004) asserted that ethical training increase the willingness to cooperate with partners, the
challenging of widely accepted assumptions and the status quo (Hartog & Frame, 2004), and building
personal character (Hartman, 2006).
EMPHASIS
Relevance in Management Education
Business colleges are confronting overwhelming feedbacks for neglecting to bestow helpful aptitudes
and learning, get ready pioneers for making the right decision, impart standards of moral conduct that
would have anticipated major corporate disasters; and even lead graduates to corporate employments
that can increase wages. The underlying driver of these issues in administration instruction, as per Bennis and O’Toole (2005), is that generally business schools appear to have embraced a self-overcoming
model for evaluation of scholarly greatness. Rather than measuring the nature of every project as far as
the capability of understudies, most schools evaluate themselves taking into account the thoroughness
of exploratory examination that is distributed by their workforce and graduates. Business colleges ought
to utilize an expert situated model. Nonetheless, actually most business colleges keep on procuring and
advance exploration situated with educators who have never invested energy working in the work environment. Subsequent to these explorations centered employees are happy with showing strategy and
investigative examination; business colleges will keep on preparing alumni of the same thinking pattern.
To wind up focused and important for the advanced working environment, it is evident that business
colleges need to rediscover the act of business while adequately adjusting the requirement for teaching
specialists and making learning through exploratory examinations.
A new generation of psychologists is presently contemplating about how to make moral pioneers in
business and in different callings, in light of the idea that great individuals regularly do bad things unconsciously. It might change instruction in the callings, as well as the way we consider urging individuals
to make the best decision by and large.
A business educator must help students in becoming more socially responsible and ethically sensitive
in order to fulfill the substantive part of their responsibility as they prepare a new generation of business
practitioners (Giacalone & Thompson, 2006). Many leading businesses accept the validity of the title
role and prominence of ethics, rather, they are finding new ways to put ethics into practice, and the vast
majority recognizes that the challenges for tomorrow’s business leaders will be even greater. Ethics is a
core discipline of business and an essential competency for the next generation of managers but Business schools aren’t doing enough to build ethics as a foundation course and part of other disciplines into
their curricula. The central difficulty with the partitioning off of ethics and values from the rest of the
business school curriculum is that students will think about self-serving bias and discrimination and
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moral disengagement only so extended as it’s the focus of classroom conversation, then forget it amidst
discussions of marketing, finance, and accounting (Fisman & Galinsky, 2012).
If ethics is a core discipline of business as the literature review suggests then, as with finance, marketing, accounting, and the like, a separate course is inevitable. Ghoshal (2005) also accepted that the
management education is responsible for strengthening the concepts and ideas which have long been
practiced by the contemporary corporate leadership. Every individual also has his own values when the
leader demonstrates the morality in actions the employees follows the blueprints and organization also
gets recognition for its ethicality towards society. Henceforth the related perspective phenomenon of
ethicality carries a huge importance in creating a morally healthy business environment for sustainable
individual, social and economic growth by actually practicing.
Schools of business, as stressed, must lead the path in raising business to, and holding business to,
the moral measures of a calling. It is additionally vital that schools take a more extensive partner approach and teach the idea of the social obligation of business. The destinations of business colleges are
not “just” to deliver financially fruitful graduates but rather business pioneers who will make a superior
society. At last, for free enterprise to survive and succeed, for financial development to be restored and
to thrive, worldwide economies to be put right and working great at the end of the day, the dedication
to profound quality, morals, and social obligation with respect to representatives was never more basic.
Undoubtedly, the business schools should include ethical teaching in their curriculum, but the type of
curriculum should be followed, the author will discuss in the next part of the chapter.
Can Ethics Be Taught?
Ethics can be taught and in earlier studies it’s been proved. In fact, almost 2,500 years ago, the philosopher
Socrates debated the question with his fellow Athenians. Socrates’s position was clear: Ethics consists
of knowing what we ought to do, and such knowledge can be taught (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks et al.,
1987). According to the review of literature specified, it is clear that accepting that morals instruction
is essential and significant today, and business schools also understand the significance of this area.
Still a questions remains for the faculties in a different manner that what ought to be taught, and in what
capacity ought to morals be taught in order to get more effective.
To tie up ethics in the enterprises and business, one needs to begin towards the start from business
colleges, where the highest-ranked personnel has been trained. Bateman (1999) noticed that for business
schools’ morals course, “one model is a regulating approach situated in rationality” (p. 48). That is, conventional moral speculations and standards, established in reasoning, are taught to the understudies, who
at that point are indicated how these moral speculations and standards can be connected to contentions to
arrive at intelligent and discerning good choices. Former exploration recommends that morals guideline
has the potential to make individuals less inclined to take part in untrustworthy conduct. For instance,
different structures of preparing and intercessions can expand moral thinking for some individuals. Prior
researches show that college classes on “business morals” furthermore, “business and society” might
enhance moral comprehension and mentalities (Bloodgood, Turnley, & Mudwick, 2008).
To offer understudies some assistance with understanding these motion in business morals, changes
are required in both the way business morals courses are taught what’s more, in societal ways to deal
with the advancement and execution of business ethics in corporate world. For instance, contextual investigations are extremely helpful while talking about various sides of moral problems. Real life problem
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Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education
gives lifetime learning, as Derrick and Carr (2008) stated that shifting the emphasis from knowing and
remembering to facilitating and enhancing the skills and attributes that sustain lifelong learning.
Review of the Recent Ethics Courses in the Top/Premier Business Institutes
Many leading business concerns accept the legitimacy of its role and importance of ethics, rather, they
are finding new ways to put ethics into practice, and the vast majority recognizes that the challenges
for tomorrow’s business leaders will be even greater. To impart concrete knowledge to students about
ethical theory and frameworks for analysis, help students to develop a set of skills for integrating ethical
concepts into business decision making and management practices and move students to greater selfawareness by encouraging personal reflection and values clarification on individual, organizational, and
societal levels but it would not be an easy thing to do. Business ethics is now taught in major international
business institutions. Schools are encouraged to develop “codes of conduct” to indicate the importance
of proper behavior for administrators, faculty, and students in their professional and personal actions.
Schools also may foster ethical behavior through procedures such as disciplinary systems to manage
inappropriate behavior and through honor codes (AACSB International, 2004).
A research done by Christensen, Peirce, Hartman, Hoffman& Carrier (2007) including 50 top global
MBA programs found that there is a fivefold increase in standalone ethics courses since a 1988 investigation of ethics. This study also found that there is a higher percentage of student interest in ethics,
CSR and sustainability topics in the top ten schools globally and these schools are teaching these topics
using experiential learning and emersion techniques (Figure 1).
The most common forms of experiential learning in a business school format include team-building
exercises, live projects, simulations, guest speakers, and internships. Thus, these types of activities “can
create the critical intersection between classroom and business learning which keeps faculty and students
connected to rapidly changing business models” (Navarro, 2008). For instance, Wharton school is taught
jointly by faculty of their ethics and leadership programmes (Friedman, 1996). Similarly, Indian premier
B schools are also focusing on ethics and values and they have tried to involve the subject in the core
courses. Two years ago, right after the slowdown, Indian Institute of Management-Calcutta included
business ethics a compulsory course. Now it is setting up a separate cell on business ethics and communication (Figure 2).
In India only IIM Calcutta is well recognized for the subject and strongly supports the inclusion of
ethics throughout the course and curriculum. To effectively integrate ethics at the fundamental level,
business schools must remove significant problems like no support for ethics as core discipline.
The number and quality of required and elective business ethics courses has grown, as have the
extra-curricular offerings and the recognition by other faculty that ethics is a core business discipline.
A 2007 study of ethics, sustainability, and corporate social responsibility programs from the Financial
Times top 50 business schools found an increase in the number of stand-alone ethics courses offered
to 25% of respondents, up from 5% in a 1988 study (Christensen et al, 2007). Still at present, the ethics
curriculum at business schools can best be described as an unsuccessful work-in-progress (Fisman &
Galinsky, 2012). Similarly, Srinivasan, Srinivasan and Anand (2012) concluded and probed that the status
of teaching of ECCE courses in business schools in India is quite strong with an overwhelming 90% of
the schools having a course in this area but are we able to produce ethically and morally profound managers? In fact, the subject ethics has also been introduced in the syllabus of Indian administrative services
also because there is a persistent need to place morality and ethics first in the public administration of
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Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education
Figure 1. ­
Figure 2. ­
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Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education
today due to state officials and civil servants exposed to acute dilemmas can hardly help succumbing to
a state of confusion and embarrassment in which they are often quite reluctantly thrust (Radhika, 2012).
Place of Business Ethics in the Syllabus of Top Business Schools
In a Bloomberg article Himsel (2014) alleged business schools of not producing ethical graduates though
accepted that they are trying to improve ethical teaching and training. According to Global MBA ranking 2015 of Financial Times, the author randomly picked five top business schools in which Harvard
business school of US tops the list, here in the list indicted in Figure 1 shows that if business ethics is in
their main curriculum or core courses. In the list the author has also tried to illustrate the course content
of this course according to the precedence in the top business schools and top five premier Indian B
Schools too in Figure 2 according to a survey of business today in 2015.
An organization wide moral structure is unrealistic to be powerful unless it has a champion at the
largest amount and is supported by an establishment’s representing body. The leader of the organization
would be the undeniable decision as champion, in spite of the fact that the seat of governors might be
more proper at times. It is additionally basic that senior champions set a sample with their own particular
conduct by “living” the organization’s moral standards and practices. The foundation’s qualities ought
to support everything that it does. It is vital that any moral system develops out of and is reliable with
existing institutional mission and qualities proclamations. The structure will help to make an interpretation of institutional qualities without hesitation all through the association. Core qualities are a necessary
part of any moral structure and, have not recognized an arrangement of hierarchical qualities; it would
do well to do as such as part of this activity. It is additionally vital to consider the expert estimations of
individuals from staff to guarantee that the system won’t conflict with these qualities.
A CASE STUDY
A case study encompassed in this chapter, which demonstrates the ethical dilemmas in the work life
of management graduates. The following case study is about a girl named Riya who is a management
professional sees family preferences in the organization, in which she has been just appointed. Now she
finds herself on the horns of dilemma and struggles between the wrong things going on or to remain in
job. The case is based on the secondary data and displays the importance of ethical guidance in the life
of corporate professional.
Family Affair


100
Topic: Discrimination/Favoritism.
Characters:
◦◦
Riya, Head of the Payroll Department at A&K Electronics Service Organization.
◦◦
Akash, Owner of A&K Electronics Service Organization.
◦◦
Manoj, General Manager.
◦◦
Sandeep, Service Technician and Manoj’s brother.

Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education
Riya has quite recently been employed as the head of the Payroll Department at A&K Electronics Service
Organization. She was employed by Manoj, the General Manager of the organization, who educated
her of the requirement for keeping up strict secrecy with respect to worker pay rates and pay scales. He
likewise educated her that he let go the past Payroll Office head for breaking that secrecy by talking
about representatives’ pay rates. She was additionally formally acquainted with Akash, the proprietor,
who advised her to see him in the event that she has any inquiries or issues. Both Akash and Manoj made
her vibe welcome. Following three months of work, Riya starts to ask why Sandeep makes a great deal
more in commissions than the other administration experts. She accepts that he should be very qualified and should work quickly on the grounds that she has caught Akash complimenting Sandeep on his
execution on a few events. She has additionally seen Akash, Manoj, and Sandeep eating together much
of the time. One day, Manoj gives Riya the pile of work tickets for the administration experts for the up
and coming week. The experts are to take whatever ticket is on top when they complete the work they
were chipping away at. In the wake of putting the tickets where they have a place, Riya recalls that she
has to visit her college to collect some documents following morning and comes back to Manoj’s office
to let him know she will be reporting late for work. When she enters Manoj’s office, she sees Manoj
give Sandeep a separate heap of work tickets. As she stands there, Manoj advises her on the off chance
that she specifies this to anybody, he will fire her. Riya is disturbed in light of the fact that she downplays that Manoj is giving the less demanding, high-commission work to his sibling. Riya additionally
understands that Manoj has the power to contract and fire her. Since she has just been at the organization a brief timeframe, she is additionally still on probation. This is her first employment since business
school. Now she ponders what she ought to do.
PROPOSED SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The reason behind introducing the ethical education might be the increasing unethical behavior in the
organizations. And earlier the chapter has established that all over the world including India there is
a steep increase in introduction of courses related to ethics (Christensen et al, 2007; Srinivasan et al,
2012), which are not considerably successful in practical implication of corporate life. There are several
researchers who have supported the fact that ethical education advances ethical and fair attitude (Oddo,
1997; Burton, Johnston & Wilson, 1991), but Stephens and Stephens (2008) analyzed the problem well
and concluded that the ethics courses offered not taken seriously are the prime cause. On the other hand,
Cragg (1997) claimed that ethics is something which cannot be taught and further a study conducted
by Bishop (1992) further supported the fact by saying, “another interesting criticism of ethics is that as
long as we have laws that dictate what is permissible; we do not need courses in ethics” (p. 294). Mostly
ethics courses emphasis on hypothetical decision-making and defining that what the right thing to do is.
Whereas most of us know that “knowing’ does not lead to “doing.’
Our curriculum of business education normally revolves around the financial education and according to Giacalone &Thompson (2006), if we really wish to advance ethics in management education, we
must ground our curriculum in a worldview that advances well-being as a priority, making ethics the
main concern rather than the backfill of the curriculum. A famous saying from Buddha is that, “what we
think we become”, somehow it fits completely in the foresaid situation as when our mind will constantly
revolve around the generation of money, soon the similar thinking pattern lead to self-centeredness and
self-involvement (Gini&Marcocx,2009; Murtaza, 2011), which results in unethical behavior and greed.
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Business, being an essential part of our lives, consciously done is an essential aspect of living consciously and a conscious business leader bring awareness of truth, good, human nature, moral imperatives
to the business and promotes mindfulness. Avolio and Gardner (2005) argued that “Through increased
self-awareness, self-regulation and positive modeling, authentic leaders fosters the development of authenticity in followers, in turn followers’ authenticity contributes to their well-being and attainment of
sustainable and veritable performance” (p. 317). In addition to it, Brown and Trevino, (2006) stated that
self-awareness; openness, transparency, and consistency are at the core of authentic leadership. Brown
and Trevino (2006) also found that conscientious individuals are responsible and dependable, consistent
with credibility which enhances model effectiveness according to social learning theory. Deliberating the
keys for a virtuous leadership George (2011) said that self-reflection as a necessary antidote for leaders,
he said that before taking a leadership role, one should ask himself the reason behind it, if the answers
are power, prestige and money they are at risk of relying external gratification for fulfillment. External
gratification rather than inner fulfillment leads to lose their foundation. He précised further that introspection is helpful for leaders to transit from seeking external gratification to finding internal satisfaction
by making meaningful contributions through their leadership. And in addition to greater self-awareness,
there is a need of discussion of the kinds of structural solutions that force people to confront ethics rather
than leaving them in the background. This will help the students with their own ethical lapses and help
them in their roles as future business leaders (Fisman & Galinsky, 2012). So there is a requirement of
an education which can develop the sense of awareness and self-refection in the young minds and there
should be a scope that they can get specific advice whenever required in state of dilemma. The ethical
teaching should be more than just written rules and regulations and more focused on living the values.
Examples of Model Practice, Ideas, or Programs
According to Mary C. Gentile (2008) traditional ethics classes just tell and optimize students’ knowledge
about right and wrong and what about action. So she came up with “giving voice to values” which help
students in determining the course of action when they believe that they know what is right but somehow
feel disempower, confused or lost.
GVV has seven supports
Step1: Acknowledging shared values.
Step 2: Choose to action.
Step 3: Normalizing value conflicts.
Step 4: Defining professional purpose.
Step 5: Understanding the self.
Step 6: Using one’s voice.
Step 7: Preparing responses.
GVV is a unique concept and a brave step for facilitating values and ethics into the corporate life of
students.
One way to deal with showing business morals is concentrating on the diverse good rationalities and
taking a gander at individual ways to deal with settling on moral choices. Educators who need to take
this methodology ought to look at Forsyth’s Taxonomy of Ethical Ideologies. These four unmistakable
moral points of view incorporate the accompanying:
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Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education
1.
2.
3.
4.
Situationism: Advocates a logical investigation of ethically flawed activities.
Absolutism: Utilizes untouched, general good standards to plan moral judgments.
Subjectivism: Contends that ethical judgments ought to depend basically all alone individual
values.
Exceptionism: Concedes that special cases should at times be made to good absolutes (Forsyth,
1980, p. 175).
This scientific classification can be decreased to the theory of relativism versus optimism, in which
vision is connected with all-inclusive good principles (Forsyth, 1980). Finding out about these distinctive moral points of view can help understudies in creating individual basic speculation aptitudes and
help them in seeing how values and standards can be a piece of moral decision making. Understudies
figure out how to utilize their own ethical compass to get to moral choices. It is verging on difficult to
change these individual moral points of view in a hierarchical setting. This will require the accounting
and finance and marketing professors to grasp the ethical blind spots inherent in their respective areas,
and to appreciate and recognize approaches to lessening them. Professors, in other words, need to be
moral architects themselves (Fisman & Galinsky, 2012).
Himsel (2014) also suggested some actions for business schools, firstly as giving the students understudies experience working in a developing business sector or in pretending circumstances that compel
them to analyze their morals and follow up on them, secondly organizing joint classes with MBA understudies from different nations (or B-schools) to encourage a direct energy about the moral difficulties of
working together in these nations. And lastly Building up projects that include worldwide enterprises so
understudies have an opportunity to gain from business officials who have managed the issues they will
soon confront. On the other hand, if conceivable, make temporary jobs and extra corporate-accomplice
endeavors that permit understudies to work abroad and experience moral quandaries in the field. Business schools must encourage students to develop the deep understanding of the innumerable encounters
surrounding corporate responsibility and corporate governance and they should embellish them with
tools for recognizing and responding to ethical issues, equally personally and organizationally (AACSB
International, 2004).
There are different models, ideas and programs that have been introduced, are supportive in serving the humanity in the terms of creating the ethical and moral values in management education and
overcoming the ethical challenges day by day. Around six –seven years back in India, most prestigious
business school IIM –Ahmedabad has incorporated ethics as a compulsory course in the first year instead
of continuing with business ethics as an elective in the final year. Other than this IIM Calcutta (IIM-C)
has set up a ‘Business Ethics and Communication Group’ in 2008 that emphases upon teaching, training,
research and presenting consultancy on human values and ethics in management. This group tries to attain an accurate combination of Western and Eastern approaches to management by creating frameworks
of knowledge and methods of application of the same in the context of existing management concepts
and practices (Umarji & Unnithan, 2008). At IIM Kolkata center for human values gives training to the
student in the field of business ethics and CSR. In fact, IIM Kolkata also publishes a journal with Sage
which is focused upon values and ethics named journal of human values. Other than this, another business school, MDI Gurgaon offer courses in corporate social responsibility and they are doing research
and developing case study on the similar issues. Four broad themes that, in our collective judgment,
should inform ethics education are addressed in this document: the responsibility of business in society;
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ethical decision-making; ethical leadership; and corporate governance (AACSB International, 2004). For
two decades, business schools have been trying to spread awareness about ethical and moral values in
corporate by organizing workshops and conferences. Many management schools including IIMs in India
are organizing conferences /workshops and trainings in the field of business ethics since long (Mcshane,
Glinow & Sharma, 2011). Even a former IIM Kolkata Professor S.S. Sengupta has been organizing such
kind of conferences through her organization all over India and since last year, it is global. Her conferences are mostly focused on ethics, corporate social responsibility and sustainability interlinked with
spiritual traditions (ISOL Global Foundation, n. d.)
CONCLUSION
The chapter began by reviewing the relevant social scientific literature relating various dimensions of
requirement of ethically responsible education for understanding the phenomena. Further the author
described the theoretical concepts of value and ethics in business, chapter also displayed some real life
examples of immoral and unethical acts committed by the top leaders and tried to identify the reasons
behind these wrongdoings. The theme of this chapter revolves around the ethical education in the top
management schools, why it is required, its significance and its challenges. The chapter embraced a call
for ethical training which can help growing the moral aspects of leadership which are required to pursue
the ethically precise environment in the organization and the hardships to maintain the ethical culture in
the organizations. In the last section of the chapter author stated the importance of growing awareness
about the impact of values and ethics on the management education’s influence on society and in the
context of ethical business models. Earlier the chapter has reviewed that how the ethics and value based
management education will cater a new direction to the whole scenario of business courses, which will
bring the Value based leadership, giving vision to develop new business models with ethical approach.
Business colleges ought to be pioneers in delivering not “only” financial development and imperativeness
additionally moral and socially dependable conduct; and along these lines business colleges ought to,
and must, deliver business pioneers who can effectuate positive, esteem expanding change on a worldwide premise. This written work looks to raise and to address certain vital and testing issues going up
against business colleges today, including the vital component of morals to initiative, to business, and
to the business understudy’s training; alongside a solid sample of a graduate business morals course.
Consequently, the author has tried to find out the psychological aspects of ethical and moral behavior
of individuals. Leaders cannot avoid being answerable to the stakeholders, they must cherish ethical
activities every day, as a loud and clear message, so that everyone could feel the “values” lied in the
organization. Introspection, self-discipline, self-awareness are the keys to develop and cultivate oneself,
because leaders should have a wider outlook of decisions so that it could benefits the wide community
along with the organization. This entails being balanced and moral person who feel responsible for the
stakeholders, completely consumed with the finer details of their business. Finally, the effectiveness and
usefulness of teaching ethics and values in management education depends upon the active participation
of every business school. An equal emphasis on techniques, structural courses and cultural factors might
help to provide the answers and help educators to identify the facilitating and inhibiting factors which
influence the success of ethical teachings in management.
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110

Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education
KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
Ethical Challenges: The encounters which has been created by any decision or action, taken by
subjugation of self-interest or lack of integrity.
Ethical Leadership: A leadership in which the leaders implement ethicality according to the rules
and standards in decisions, acts and attitude. Leaders who have a clear set of principles and moral standards must be exact in applying them to themselves and others in order to be seen as ethical leaders.
Ethics: The term comes from the Greek word ethikos, which has originated from the word, “ethos”,
which means “custom, habit.” Ethics is a set of principles which guide us in a sense of being right or
fair behavior in actions or conduct in particular circumstances.
Leadership: The capability of an individual to motivate or persuade others to contribute towards
the achievement of a common goal. It is a process of social influence in which a person guides others,
or organizing a group of people in jointly achieving common aim or goal.
Morality: The beliefs or the values, which have been cultivated over time, in a society which suggest
how an individual behave in a particular situation.
Unethical Behavior: The behavior which does not confirm the approved standards or rules that are
morally acceptable in a particular context. E.g. corporate executives show unethical behavior while
falsifying the accounts.
Values: An assumption, which works as the suspension for integrity and ethics, it is the basis of a
behavior. Some cognitions or ideas/beliefs present in every society about desirable models of behavior.
111
‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬
‫وزارة التعليم‬
‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Education
Saudi Electronic University
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 1
Business Ethics and Organizational Social Responsibility
(MGT422)
Due Date: 22/04/2023 @ 23:59
Course Name: Business Ethics and
Organisational Social Responsibility
Course Code: MGT 422
Student’s Name:
Semester: Third
CRN: 31610
Student’s ID Number:
Academic Year:2022-23-3rd
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name: Dr. Shahid Alam
Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/Out of 15
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
General Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
• The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.
• Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
• Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced
for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
• Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
• Late submission will NOT be accepted.
• Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other
resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
• All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No
pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
• Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Learning Outcomes:
No
Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs)
CLO-4
CLO-6
Illustrate the role of social responsibility in the functional areas and strategic
processes of business and a comprehensive framework for analyzing and resolving
ethical issues and dilemmas in an organization.
Write coherent project about a case study or actual research about ethics
The content is available for free download in knowledge resource from the SEU
homepage:
Read chapter 5: “Relevance of Teaching Values and Ethics in Management Education”
Source Title: Management Education for Global Leadership Copyright: ©
2017 |Pages: 22
ISBN13: 9781522510130|ISBN10: 1522510133|EISBN13: 9781522510147
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1013-0.ch00
Assignment Question(s):
1. Critically evaluate the significance and the relationship between ethics and Business
as explained by the author. (Not less than 500 words-5 Marks)
2. With suitable examples (at least 2) discuss the importance of trust in business. What
happens when trust is lost? (Not less than 500 words-5 Marks)
3. Discuss how ethics could be incorporated in education, particularly for business
students. (Not less than 500 words-5 Marks)
# Note: All answers should be supported with proper references.
Answers
1. Answer2. Answer3. Answer-

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