Macroscopic Observations Data Table Lab Report

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URINALYSIS
LAB LAB
WHAT DO I NEED TO HAND IN
WITH THIS
Urine Sample
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Macroscopic Observations Data Table
Chemstix Urinalysis Data Table
Microscopic Observations Data Table
Answers to Questions 1-7
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URINALYSIS LAB
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Urine Sample
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Macroscopic
Observations
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Urinalysis
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Microscopic
Observations
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Urinalysis
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Urine Sample
Tests on urine can provide URINALYSIS
clues to LAB
many
Click onabout
the blackboard
diseases and information
yourto view a
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overall health. A routine urine screening
test may be done to help find the cause for
many types of symptoms. The kidneys
remove waste material, minerals, fluids,
and other substances from the blood for
elimination in the urine. Therefore, urine
can contain hundreds of different bodily
waste products. Many factors (such as diet,
fluid intake, exercise, and kidney function)
affect what is in urine.
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Urine Sample
A urine test may be done as part of a
routine physical examination to screen for a
disease or infection of the urinary tract.
Symptoms that may lead to a urine test
include discolored or foul-smelling urine,
pain during urination, difficulty urinating,
flank pain, or fever. Urine tests are also
performed to monitor the treatment of
certain conditions such as diabetes, kidney
stones, a urinary tract infection,
hypertension, or some types of kidney or
liver disease.
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Urine Sample
Macroscopic examination requires only that
the observer has a sense of sight and
smell. The most cost-effective device used
to screen urine chemistry is a plastic
dipstick. This microchemistry system has
been available for many years and allows
qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis
within a few minutes by simple but careful
observation. The color change occurring
on each segment of the strip is compared
to an established color chart to obtain
results. Microscopic urinalysis requires
only a relatively inexpensive light
microscope.
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In this lab we will perform three types of
analysis on a urine sample.
Urine Sample
1) MACROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS
2) CHEMSTIX ANALYSIS
3) MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS
For all three analysis you will need to
complete data tables describing your
observations.
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Urine Sample
The urine sample was collected at the
same time that you started the lab. You
most likely viewed the collection process.
The urine sample is potentially
contaminated with pathogens. Wear latex
barrier gloves and protective eyewear
during the entire exercise. Place all
disposable material that comes into
contact with urine in the biohazard bag.
Good luck and be careful.
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URINALYSIS LAB
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escape key to end the lab
Urine Sample
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Go Directly to
Macroscopic
Observations
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Chemstix
Urinalysis
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Microscopic
Observations
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Urinalysis
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MACROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS
Urine Sample
The first part of a urinalysis is direct visual
observation. We will observe the following
characteristics of the urine sample. Be
sure to enter your observations in the
appropriate data table.
COLOR
TURBIDITY
ODOR
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COLOR
Urine Sample
Normal, fresh urine is pale to dark yellow or
amber in color and clear. The yellow color
is due to the pigment urochrome, a
metabolic product of hemoglobin
breakdown. A red or red-brown (abnormal)
color could be from a food dye, eating fresh
beets, a drug, or the presence of either
hemoglobin or myoglobin. If the sample
contained many red blood cells, it would be
cloudy as well as red.
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COLOR
Urine Sample
The intensity of the color generally
indicates the concentration of the urine;
pale or colorless urine indicates that it is
dilute. Colorless urine may be caused by
conditions such as long-term kidney
disease or uncontrolled diabetes. Deep
yellow urine indicates that it is
concentrated. Dark yellow urine can be
caused by conditions such as low fluid
intake or dehydration. Vitamin B
supplements can also turn urine bright
yellow.
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COLOR
Urine Sample
The color of the urine sample is assessed
subjectively and reported as:
-Colorless
-Light to medium yellow
-Very dark yellow
-Red to brownish red
-Reddish brown to brown
-Greenish tint
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COLOR
Urine Sample
Some examples of various urine colors and
corresponding common causes are shown
below:
Color
Possible causes
light to medium yellow
normal
colorless
very dilute urine
very dark yellow
extremely concentrated; bilirubinuria
red to brownish red
hematuria, hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria
reddish brown to brown myoglobinuria, hemoglobinuria, methemoglobin
greenish tint
bilirubinuria
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Urine Sample
Click on the urine
sample on the
shelf and record
the Color and
Intensity of color
in your data table.
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Urine Sample
TURBIDITY
Also called transparency, opacity or clarity,
this test determines the cloudiness of
urine. Urine is normally clear. Bacteria,
blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make
urine appear cloudy. The turbidity of the
urine sample is gauged subjectively and
reported as:
-clear
-slightly cloudy
-cloudy
-opaque
-flocculent (cannot see through)
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Urine Sample
TURBIDITY
Normally, fresh urine is clear to very
slightly cloudy. Excess turbidity results
from the presence of suspended
particles in the urine. The cause can
usually be determined based on the
results of the microscopic urine
sediment examination. The turbidity in
the sample to the right was due to
numerous crystals which precipitated
upon cooling of the specimen to room
temperature.
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TURBIDITY
Urine Sample
Common causes of abnormal turbidity
include :
-increased cells (RBC, WBC)
-numerous crystals
-bacteria
-lipiduria (lipids often rise to the surface)
-mucus
-semen
-fecal contamination
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Urine Sample
TURBIDITY
Three urine samples are shown. The one at
the left shows a red, cloudy appearance.
The one in the center is red but clear. The
one on the right is yellow, but cloudy
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Urine Sample
Click on the urine
sample on the
shelf and record
the Turbidity in
your data table.
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Urine Sample
ODOR
A normal odor for urine is a slightly “nutty”
(aromatic) smell.
Some foods (such as asparagus), vitamins,
and antibiotics (such as penicillin) can
cause urine to develop an unusual odor.
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ODOR
Urine Sample
Some diseases can cause a change in the
normal odor of urine. For example, an
infection with E. coli bacteria can cause a
foul odor while diabetes or starvation can
cause a sweet, fruity odor. Urine that smells
like maple syrup can indicate maple syrup
urine disease, a condition caused by the
body’s inability to break down certain
amino acids.
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Urine Sample
Click on the urine
sample on the shelf.
Sample the urine with
your virtual nose and
record the Odor in
your data table.
A virtual nose is supplied in this
instance. If you can identify the
images emanating from the urine
sample to the virtual nose, you will
be able to enter a characteristic
odor of the sample to the data sheet.
If you are not able to identify the
images click on the word ODOR
below
ODOR
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MACROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS
Urine Sample
You have now completed your Macroscopic
Observations on the urine sample. Be sure
you have entered the data required on the
Data Table. If you need to return to the start
of the Macroscopic Observations, you can
use the links supplied below.
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Observations
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URINALYSIS LAB
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escape key to end the lab
Urine Sample
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Macroscopic
Observations
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Chemstix
Urinalysis
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Microscopic
Observations
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Urinalysis
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CHEMSTIX ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
Chemstix strips are composed of sections
of paper with test reagents embedded into
the fibers. They react with urine
components if present. The Chemstix are
divided into ten individual panels which will
change color in accordance with
components that may be present in the
urine sample. We can then compare the
color changes to a color panel chart to
assist in determining urine components.
Chemstix
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CHEMSTIX ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
The Chemstix below indicates the type of
test that will be performed for each of the
individual panels on the Chemstix. You will
not have to memorize the panel key below.
As each test is performed a key will be
provided for you.
Nitrite
Protein
Blood
Ketone
Glucose
Chemstix
Leukocytes
Urobinogen
pH
Specific
Gravity
Bilirubin
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CHEMSTIX COLOR CHART
Negative
Trace
Small
Moderate
Large
LEUKOCYTES
———-Positive——–→
Negative
NITRITE
(Any degree of
color change)
Urine Sample
0.2
1
2
4
8
33
100
200
2000
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
Trace Moderate Trace
Small
UROBILINOGEN
Negative Trace
PROTEIN
5.0
6.0
6.5
pH
Negative
Moderate Large
BLOOD
Non-Hemolyzed
1.000
1.005
Hemolyzed
1.010
1.015
1.020
1.025
1.030
Trace
Small Moderate Large
X Large
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
Negative
KETONE
Negative
Small Moderate Large
CHEMSTIX
ANALYSIS
The chart to the left is
what we will compare
our sampled Chemstix
against to determine
the characteristics of
the urine sample. You
will not need to
memorize the table as
it will be provided to
you as you perform the
tests.
BILIRUBIN
Negative
GLUCOSE
100
250
500
1000
2000
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CHEMSTIX ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
We are now ready to perform tests on the
urine sample that will analyze for the
following characteristics:
-specific gravity
-pH
-protein
-glucose
-ketones
-nitrites
-bilirubin
-hematuria
-urobilinogen
-leukocytes
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CHEMSTIX ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
The chart below shows what abnormalities
may be associated with abnormal urine
characteristics.
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Urine Sample
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
Specific gravity measures the amount of
substances dissolved in the urine. It also
indicates how well the kidneys are able to
adjust the amount of water in urine.
Specific gravity can be considered to
measure urine density, or the ability of the
kidney to concentrate or dilute the urine
over that of plasma. Urine specific gravity
is a measurement of the density of urine
compared to pure water. The specific
gravity of water is 1.00.
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Urine Sample
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
The higher the specific gravity, the more
solid material is dissolved in the urine.
When you drink a lot of liquid, your kidneys
should produce greater-than-normal
amounts of dilute urine. When you drink
very little liquid, your kidneys should make
only small amounts of concentrated urine.
Urine specific gravity can be determined
using a Chemstix.
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Urine Sample
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
Normal specific gravity of urine is
measured at 1.005 – 1.035.
Abnormally low specific gravity indicates
dilute urine, which may be caused by:
– drinking excessive amounts of liquid
– severe kidney disease
– the use of diuretics
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Urine Sample
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
Abnormally high specific gravity indicates
very concentrated urine, which may be
caused by:
– not drinking enough liquid
– loss of too much liquid (excessive
vomiting, sweating, or diarrhea)
– substances (such as sugar or protein)
in the urine
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Click on the Chemstix
bottle on the shelf.
Next click on the
cover of the bottle to
obtain a few of the
Chemstix.
Chemstick
Multistix
Multistix
Multistix
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Urine Sample

Click on the one of the
Chemstix on the table to
sample the urine. Now
click on the blue button
on top of the timer and
leave the Chemstix in
the urine sample for two
minutes.
Chemstick
Multistix
2 Minute Timer
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Urine Sample
The color panels on the
Chemstix will change
color in relation to the
characteristics of the
urine sample. Each of
the color panels is
associated specifically
with a single urine
characteristic.
Chemstick
Multistix
2 Minute Timer
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Click on the
CHEMSTIX to view
a magnified view
of the CHEMSTIX
Urine Sample
Chemstick
Multistix
Click on the Chemstix in
the urine sample to
compare the stick to the
color chart to read the
Specific Gravity for the
sample. Read the color
panel indicated by the
arrow above the stick.
2 Minute Timer
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CHEMSTIX COLOR CHART
Negative
Trace
Small
Moderate
Large
LEUKOCYTES
———-Positive——–→
Negative
NITRITE
(Any degree of
color change)
0.2
1
2
4
8
33
100
200
2000
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
UROBILINOGEN
Negative Trace
PROTEIN
5.0
6.0
6.5
pH
Compare the color of
the panel indicated by
the arrow to the color
chart for Specific
Gravity and record the
value indicated in the
data table for Chemstix
Urinalysis.
Chemstix
Negative
Trace Moderate Trace
Small
Moderate Large
BLOOD
Non-Hemolyzed
1.000
1.005
Specific
Gravity
Hemolyzed
1.010
1.015
1.020
1.025
1.030
Trace
Small Moderate Large
X Large
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
Negative
KETONE
Negative
Small Moderate Large
BILIRUBIN
Negative
GLUCOSE
100
250
500
1000
2000
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Urine Sample
pH
The pH is a measure of how acidic or
alkaline (basic) the urine is. A urine pH of 4
is strongly acidic, 7 is neutral (neither
acidic nor alkaline), and 9 is strongly
alkaline.
Sometimes the pH of urine may be adjusted
by certain types of treatment. For example,
efforts may be made to keep urine either
acidic or alkaline to prevent formation of
certain types of kidney stones.
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Urine Sample
pH
Normal pH for urine ranges from 4.5 – 8.0.
Some foods (such as citrus fruit and dairy
products) and medications (such as
antacids) can affect urine pH. In a diet high
in protein the urine is more acidic, while a
diet high in vegetable material yields a
urine that is more alkaline.
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Urine Sample
pH
A high (alkaline) pH can be caused by
prolonged vomiting, a kidney disease, some
urinary tract infections, and asthma.
A low (acidic) pH may be a sign of severe
lung disease (emphysema), uncontrolled
diabetes, aspirin overdose, prolonged
diarrhea, dehydration, starvation, drinking
an excessive amount of alcohol, or drinking
antifreeze (ethylene glycol).
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CHEMSTIX COLOR CHART
Negative
Trace
Small
Moderate
Large
LEUKOCYTES
———-Positive——–→
Negative
NITRITE
(Any degree of
color change)
0.2
1
2
4
8
33
100
200
2000
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
UROBILINOGEN
Negative Trace
Compare the color of
the panel indicated by
the arrow to the color
chart for pH and record
the value indicated in
the data table for
Chemstix Urinalysis.
PROTEIN
5.0
6.0
6.5
pH
Chemstix
Negative
Trace Moderate Trace
Small
Moderate Large
pH
BLOOD
Non-Hemolyzed
1.000
1.005
Hemolyzed
1.010
1.015
1.020
1.025
1.030
Trace
Small Moderate Large
X Large
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
Negative
KETONE
Negative
Small Moderate Large
BILIRUBIN
Negative
GLUCOSE
100
250
500
1000
2000
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Urine Sample
PROTEIN
Normal urine contains little protein.
Negative to trace reactions are usual in
concentrated urine. A Chemstix protein
reaction greater than 33 in concentrated or
dilute urine indicates significant
proteinuria. There are numerous causes of
proteinuria, the most common of which are
urinary tract inflammation, hematuria, and
glomerular disease.
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Urine Sample
PROTEIN
Proteinuria is usually a sign of kidney
disorders, but it may occur normally after
strenuous exercise such as marathon
running. Fever, strenuous exercise, normal
pregnancy, and some diseases (especially
kidney disease) may also cause protein in
the urine. Protein in the urine can also be
caused by heart failure, leukemia, poison
(lead or mercury poisoning), or a condition
during pregnancy that results in high blood
pressure (preeclampsia).
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CHEMSTIX COLOR CHART
Negative
Trace
Small
Moderate
Large
LEUKOCYTES
———-Positive——–→
Negative
NITRITE
(Any degree of
color change)
0.2
1
2
4
8
33
100
200
2000
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
UROBILINOGEN
Negative Trace
PROTEIN
5.0
6.0
6.5
pH
Compare the color of
the panel indicated by
the arrow to the color
chart for Protein and
record the value
indicated in the data
table for Chemstix
Urinalysis.
Chemstix
Negative
Trace Moderate Trace
Small
Moderate Large
Protein
BLOOD
Non-Hemolyzed
1.000
1.005
Hemolyzed
1.010
1.015
1.020
1.025
1.030
Trace
Small Moderate Large
X Large
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
Negative
KETONE
Negative
Small Moderate Large
BILIRUBIN
Negative
GLUCOSE
100
250
500
1000
2000
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Urine Sample
GLUCOSE
Glucose is the type of sugar usually found
in blood. Normally there is very little or no
glucose in urine. However, when the blood
sugar level is very high, as in uncontrolled
diabetes, it spills over into the urine.
Glycosuria (excess sugar in urine)
generally means diabetes mellitus. Glucose
can also be present in urine when the
kidneys are damaged or diseased.
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Urine Sample
GLUCOSE
Some medications can cause glucose in
the urine. Excess glucose in the urine is
often caused by uncontrolled diabetes.
Other conditions that may cause glucose in
urine include an adrenal gland problem,
liver damage, brain injury, certain types of
poisoning, and certain types of kidney
diseases that decrease their ability to
reabsorb glucose from the urine.
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CHEMSTIX COLOR CHART
Negative
Trace
Small
Moderate
Large
LEUKOCYTES
———-Positive——–→
Negative
NITRITE
(Any degree of
color change)
0.2
1
2
4
8
33
100
200
2000
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
UROBILINOGEN
Negative Trace
PROTEIN
5.0
6.0
6.5
pH
Compare the color of
the panel indicated by
the arrow to the color
chart for Glucose and
record the value
indicated in the data
table for Chemstix
Urinalysis.
Chemstix
Negative
Trace Moderate Trace
Small
Moderate Large
Glucose
BLOOD
Non-Hemolyzed
1.000
1.005
Hemolyzed
1.010
1.015
1.020
1.025
1.030
Trace
Small Moderate Large
X Large
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
Negative
KETONE
Negative
Small Moderate Large
BILIRUBIN
Negative
GLUCOSE
100
250
500
1000
2000
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Urine Sample
KETONES
When fat is broken down for energy, the
body produces by-products called ketones
(or ketone bodies) and releases them into
the urine. Common ketones include
acetone, aceotacetic acid, and betahydroxybutyric acid. Normally there are no
ketones in the urine.
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Urine Sample
KETONES
Large amounts of ketones in the urine may
signal a dangerous condition known as
diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketones in the urine
can indicate poorly controlled diabetes, a
very low-carbohydrate diet, starvation
(including disorders that result in poor
nutrition such as anorexia nervosa or
bulimia), alcoholism, or poisoning from
drinking rubbing alcohol (isopropanol).
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Urine Sample
KETONES
Ketones are often found in the urine when a
person does not eat (fasts) for 18 hours or
longer. This may occur when a person is
sick and avoids food or vomits for an
extended period of time. Low levels of
ketones are sometimes found in the urine
of a healthy pregnant woman.
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CHEMSTIX COLOR CHART
Negative
Trace
Small
Moderate
Large
LEUKOCYTES
———-Positive——–→
Negative
NITRITE
(Any degree of
color change)
0.2
1
2
4
8
33
100
200
2000
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
UROBILINOGEN
Negative Trace
PROTEIN
5.0
6.0
6.5
pH
Compare the color of
the panel indicated by
the arrow to the color
chart for Ketone and
record the value
indicated in the data
table for Chemstix
Urinalysis.
Chemstix
Negative
Trace Moderate Trace
Small
Moderate Large
Ketones
BLOOD
Non-Hemolyzed
1.000
1.005
Hemolyzed
1.010
1.015
1.020
1.025
1.030
Trace
Small Moderate Large
X Large
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
Negative
KETONE
Negative
Small Moderate Large
BILIRUBIN
Negative
GLUCOSE
100
250
500
1000
2000
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NITRITES
Urine Sample
A positive nitrite test indicates that
bacteria may be present in significant
numbers in urine. Gram negative rods such
as E. coli are more likely to give a positive
test. High nitrite levels indicate an
infection.
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CHEMSTIX COLOR CHART
Negative
Trace
Small
Moderate
Large
LEUKOCYTES
———-Positive——–→
Negative
NITRITE
(Any degree of
color change)
0.2
1
2
4
8
33
100
200
2000
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
UROBILINOGEN
Negative Trace
PROTEIN
5.0
6.0
6.5
pH
Compare the color of
the panel indicated by
the arrow to the color
chart for Nitrites and
record the value
indicated in the data
table for Chemstix
Urinalysis.
Chemstix
Negative
Trace Moderate Trace
Small
Moderate Large
Nitrites
BLOOD
Non-Hemolyzed
1.000
1.005
Hemolyzed
1.010
1.015
1.020
1.025
1.030
Trace
Small Moderate Large
X Large
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
Negative
KETONE
Negative
Small Moderate Large
BILIRUBIN
Negative
GLUCOSE
100
250
500
1000
2000
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BLOOD
Urine Sample
This test is based on detection of the
molecules of heme (present in hemoglobin
or myoglobin). Blood in the urine
(hematuria) is detectable by Chemstix and
confirmed by viewing the urine with a
microscope. Sometimes the urine contains
enough blood to be visible, making the
urine appear red or brown.
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CHEMSTIX COLOR CHART
Negative
Trace
Small
Moderate
Large
LEUKOCYTES
———-Positive——–→
Negative
NITRITE
(Any degree of
color change)
0.2
1
2
4
8
33
100
200
2000
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
UROBILINOGEN
Negative Trace
PROTEIN
5.0
6.0
6.5
pH
Compare the color of
the panel indicated by
the arrow to the color
chart for Blood and
record the value
indicated in the data
table for Chemstix
Urinalysis.
Chemstix
Negative
Trace Moderate Trace
Small
Moderate Large
Blood
BLOOD
Non-Hemolyzed
1.000
1.005
Hemolyzed
1.010
1.015
1.020
1.025
1.030
Trace
Small Moderate Large
X Large
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
Negative
KETONE
Negative
Small Moderate Large
BILIRUBIN
Negative
GLUCOSE
100
250
500
1000
2000
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BILIRUBIN
Urine Sample
The color change indicating a positive
reaction, however, is a rather subtle
transition among shades of beige, and
sometimes is obscured by color inherent in
the urine itself. Detection of bilirubin in
urine is generally an abnormal finding.
Bilirubinuria generally results when
conjugated bilirubin levels in blood are
elevated as a result of hepatobiliary
disease.
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CHEMSTIX COLOR CHART
Negative
Trace
Small
Moderate
Large
LEUKOCYTES
———-Positive——–→
Negative
NITRITE
(Any degree of
color change)
0.2
1
2
4
8
33
100
200
2000
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
UROBILINOGEN
Negative Trace
PROTEIN
5.0
6.0
6.5
pH
Compare the color of
the panel indicated by
the arrow to the color
chart for Bilirubin and
record the value
indicated in the data
table for Chemstix
Urinalysis.
Chemstix
Negative
Trace Moderate Trace
Small
Moderate Large
Bilirubin
BLOOD
Non-Hemolyzed
1.000
1.005
Hemolyzed
1.010
1.015
1.020
1.025
1.030
Trace
Small Moderate Large
X Large
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
Negative
KETONE
Negative
Small Moderate Large
BILIRUBIN
Negative
GLUCOSE
100
250
500
1000
2000
Click Here to
Continue
LEUKOCYTE
Urine Sample
Leukocyte esterase (an enzyme found in
certain white blood cells) in the urine can
be detected by Chemstix. Leukocyte
esterase is a sign of inflammation, which is
most commonly caused by a urinary tract
infection. A positive leukocyte esterase test
results from the presence of white blood
cells either as whole cells or as lysed cells.
Click Here to
Continue
LEUKOCYTE
Urine Sample
A negative leukocyte esterase test means
that an infection is unlikely and that,
without additional evidence of urinary tract
infection, microscopic exam and/or urine
culture need not be done to rule out
significant bacterial infection in the urinary
tract.
Click Here to
Continue
CHEMSTIX COLOR CHART
Negative
Trace
Small
Moderate
Large
LEUKOCYTES
———-Positive——–→
Negative
NITRITE
(Any degree of
color change)
0.2
1
2
4
8
33
100
200
2000
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
UROBILINOGEN
Negative Trace
PROTEIN
5.0
6.0
6.5
pH
Compare the color of
the panel indicated by
the arrow to the color
chart for Leukocytes
and record the value
indicated in the data
table for Chemstix
Urinalysis.
Chemstix
Negative
Trace Moderate Trace
Small
Moderate Large
Leukocytes
BLOOD
Non-Hemolyzed
1.000
1.005
Hemolyzed
1.010
1.015
1.020
1.025
1.030
Trace
Small Moderate Large
X Large
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
Negative
KETONE
Negative
Small Moderate Large
BILIRUBIN
Negative
GLUCOSE
100
250
500
1000
2000
Click Here to
Continue
UROBILINOGEN
Urine Sample
Normal ranges of urobilinogen are 0.2 to 1.
Increases in the secretion of urobilinogen
indicate significant hemolysis of
erythrocytes to the point that the liver
cannot process the bilirubin. The bilirubin
increases in the plasma and the formation
of urobilinogen in the intestines increases
as well. The urobilinogen diffuses into the
blood, where it is filtered by the kidneys.
Click Here to
Continue
CHEMSTIX COLOR CHART
Negative
Trace
Small
Moderate
Large
LEUKOCYTES
———-Positive——–→
Negative
NITRITE
(Any degree of
color change)
0.2
1
2
4
8
33
100
200
2000
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
UROBILINOGEN
Negative Trace
PROTEIN
5.0
6.0
6.5
pH
Compare the color of
the panel indicated by
the arrow to the color
chart for Urobilinogen
and record the value
indicated in the data
table for Chemstix
Urinalysis.
Chemstix
Negative
Trace Moderate Trace
Small
Moderate Large
Urobilinogen
BLOOD
Non-Hemolyzed
1.000
1.005
Hemolyzed
1.010
1.015
1.020
1.025
1.030
Trace
Small Moderate Large
X Large
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
Negative
KETONE
Negative
Small Moderate Large
BILIRUBIN
Negative
GLUCOSE
100
250
500
1000
2000
Click Here to
Continue
CHEMSTIX URINALYSIS
Urine Sample
You have now finished the Chemstix
Urinalysis. Be sure that you have entered
all the data required for the Data Table. If
you need to perform the Chemstix
Urinalysis again, you can use the links
below.
Click Here to Return to
start of Chemstix
Urinalysis
Click Here to
Continue
Click Here to
Go Back to
where you
came from
Click Here to
Continue
URINALYSIS LAB
At any point you can use your
escape key to end the lab
Urine Sample
Click Here to
Go Directly to
Macroscopic
Observations
Click Here to
Go Directly to
Chemstix
Urinalysis
Click Here to
Go Directly to
Microscopic
Observations
Click Here to
Go Directly to
Urinalysis
Questions
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
Sediment in urine can be examined under a
microscope to provide information about a
possible kidney or urinary tract disorder.
Normally, urine contains a small number of
cells and other debris shed from the inside
of the urinary tract. A person who has a
kidney or urinary tract disorder usually
sheds more cells, which form a sediment if
urine is centrifuged or allowed to settle.
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
In this test, urine is spun in a centrifuge so
the solid materials (sediment) settle out.
The sediment is spread on a slide and
examined under a microscope.
Types of materials that may be found
include:
-Microorganisms
-Cells
-Crystals
-Casts and Fibers
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Click on the test tube rack to
acquire a test tube to fill with
a portion of the urine
sample.
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Sediment Dye
START
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Click on one of the blue eye
droppers to bring a portion
of the urine sample to the
test tube.
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Sediment Dye
START
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Click on the test tube to
insert it into the centrifuge.
Next click on the start button
to centrifuge for two minutes.
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Sediment Dye
START
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Click on the test tube in the
centrifuge to bring it to the
table. Notice the sediment
that has collected at the
bottom of the test tube. Next
click on the microscope to
bring it to the table.
Sediment Dye
START
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Click on one of the slides to
bring it to the microscope
stage. Next click on the blue
eyedropper to sample the
sediment at the bottom of
the test tube.
Sediment Dye
START
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
After discussions on the sediments
following these slides you will be able to
view the microscope slide for sediments.
The sediment is first examined under Low
power (about 100 X) to identify most
crystals, casts, epithelial cells, and other
large objects.
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Click on the eye piece of the
microscope to view the urine
sediment sample. You are
viewing on Low power (about
100 X). We will return later to
this slide view.
Sediment Dye
START
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
Next, examination is carried out at High
power (about 400 X) to identify crystals,
cells, and bacteria.
Again, remember you will be able to view
these slides again after a discussion of the
characters in the sediment.
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Click on the eye piece of the
microscope to view the urine
sediment sample. You are
viewing on High power
(about 400 X). We will return
later to these slides.
Sediment Dye
START
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
Normally very few or no red or white blood
cells or casts are seen. No bacteria, yeast
cells, or parasites are present. A few
crystals are usually normal.
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
In the sample you have looked at under the
microscope, we will attempt to quantify and
identify if the following are present in our
sediment sample:
-Red blood cells
-White blood cells
-Casts
-Epithelial cells
-Bacteria
-Crystals
Click Here to
Continue
RED BLOOD CELLS
Urine Sample
Red blood cells in urine appear as shiny
disks. With hypertonicity of the urine, the
RBC’s begin to have a crenated
appearance.
RBC
Crenated
RBC
Click Here to
Continue
RED BLOOD CELLS
Urine Sample
Red blood cells are reported quantitatively
as number seen per High power field (HPF):
none seen
100
Red blood cells are normal in urine in low
numbers. Up to 5 RBC/HPF generally are
considered acceptable.
Click Here to
Continue
RED BLOOD CELLS
Urine Sample
Hematuria is the presence of abnormal
numbers of red blood cells in urine due to
glomerular damage, kidney trauma, urinary
tract stones, urinary tract infections, blood
toxins, and physical stress. Red cells may
also contaminate the urine from the vagina
in menstruating women. Theoretically, no
red blood cells should be found, but some
find their way into the urine even in very
healthy individuals.
Click Here to
Continue
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
Urine Sample
These white blood cells in urine have lobed
nuclei and shiny cytoplasmic granules.
WBC with 3
lobed nuclei
Click Here to
Continue
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
Urine Sample
The various types of cells are usually
described as the number of each type
found per average high power field (HPF).
Example: 1-5 WBC/HPF
If two or more white blood cells appear in
the High power field the specimen is
probably abnormal. White blood cells have
lobed nuclei and granular cytoplasm.
Click Here to
Continue
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
Urine Sample
Pyuria refers to the presence of abnormal
numbers of WBC that may appear with
infection in the urinary tract. WBC from the
vagina, especially in the presence of
vaginal and cervical infections, or the
urethra in men and women may
contaminate the urine.
WBC
RBC
Click Here to
Continue
CASTS
Urine Sample
Some types of kidney disease can
cause plugs of material (called casts)
to form in the nephrons of the kidneys.
Casts are cylindrical protein-based
molds of the nephron tubule which can
then get flushed out into the urine.
Casts can be made of different types of
material, such as red or white blood
cells, waxy or fatty substances, or
protein. The type and make-up of cast
can provide clues about the type of
kidney disease that may be present.
Click Here to
Continue
CASTS
Urine Sample
Depending on the type, casts can indicate
inflammation or damage to the nephrons in
the kidneys, poor blood supply to the
kidneys, metal poisoning (such as lead or
mercury), heart failure, or a bacterial
infection. They are absent or very few in
urine samples.The numbers of casts seen
are usually reported as number of each
type found per Low power field (LPF).
Example: 5-10 casts/LPF.
Click Here to
Continue
CRYSTALS
Urine Sample
Healthy people often have only a few
crystals in their urine. However, a large
number of crystals, or the presence of
certain types of crystals, may indicate
kidney stones or a problem with how the
body is using food (metabolism). Some
medications and certain types of urinary
tract infections can also increase the
number of crystals in urine.
Click Here to
Continue
CRYSTALS
Urine Sample
Most often, crystals in routine urine
sediment preps are without significance.
Several different types can be seen in
normal samples. A few specific types,
however, can be important in certain
clinical situations. Shown below are
struvite crystals (magnesium ammonium
phosphate), which are a common finding in
normal urine.
Click Here to
Continue
MICROORGANISMS
Urine Sample
Normally there are no bacteria, yeast cells,
or parasites in urine. Bacteria are too few
to count in cleanly collected fresh urine
from healthy individuals.Their presence
can indicate an infection. Bacteria in the
urine indicate a urinary tract infection
(UTI). Yeast cells or parasites (such as the
parasite that causes trichomoniasis) can
indicate an infection of the urinary tract.
Click Here to
Continue
MICROORGANISMS
Urine Sample
Bacteria can be common in urine
specimens because of the abundant
normal microbial flora of the vagina or male
urethra and because of their ability to
rapidly multiply in urine standing at room
temperature. Therefore, microbial
organisms found in all but the most
scrupulously collected urines should be
interpreted in view of clinical symptoms.
Click Here to
Continue
MICROORGANISMS
Urine Sample
Diagnosis of bacteriuria in a case of
suspected urinary tract infection requires
culture. A colony count may also be done to
see if significant numbers of bacteria are
present. Generally, more than 100,000/ml
of one organism reflects significant
bacteriuria.
Click Here to
Continue
MICROORGANISMS
Urine Sample
Yeast cells are often difficult to distinguish
from red blood cells and some crystals but
are distinguished by their tendency to bud.
Most often they are Candida, which may
colonize bladder, urethra, or vagina.
Click Here to
Continue
EPITHELIAL CELLS
Urine Sample
Renal tubular epithelial cells, usually larger
than white blood cells, contain a large
round or oval nucleus and normally slough
into the urine in small numbers. However,
with nephrotic syndrome and in conditions
leading to tubular degeneration, the
number sloughed is increased.
Click Here to
Continue
EPITHELIAL CELLS
Urine Sample
Epithelial cells in urine are generally of
little specific diagnostic utility. Cells lining
the urinary tract at any level may slough
into the urine. In the case of voided
samples, even cells from the genital tract
can appear in the sample. Most commonly
seen are epithelial cells from the urethra,
vulva, bladder and urethra.
Click Here to
Continue
CANCER CELLS
Urine Sample
Microscopic examination of the urine to
look for cancer cells, is sometimes useful in
diagnosing cancers of the kidneys and
urinary tract. For people at high risk (for
example, smokers, petrochemical workers,
and people with painless bleeding) urine
sediment analysis may be used to screen
for cancer of the bladder and kidneys.
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Click on the eye piece to view
the sample at High power.
Next Identify and quantify the
characters listed in your data
sheet and the record in the
data sheets.
Sediment Dye
START
On the next slide you will be able to click your mouse cursor on
any of the sediment parts you see in the microscope to identify
them. Click Here to Continue to the next slide.
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Click on the eye piece to
view the sample at High
power. Identify and quantify
the characters listed in your
data sheet.
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Sediment Dye
START
Move your mouse cursor over any of the sediment particles that you see in the
microscopic image above. The sediments will be identified for you. You will need to
click on the hyperlink below the image identification to return back to here. When you
are finished identifying the sediment particles enter your findings in the data sheets
and click on the yellow hyperlink to the right to continue with the lab.
Click Here to
Continue
MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS
Urine Sample
You have now finished the Microscopic
Observations. Be sure that you have
entered all the data required for the Data
Table. If you need to perform the
Microscopic Observations again, you can
use the links below. Click on CONTINUE to
answer questions on the Urinalysis Lab.
Click Here to Return to
start of Microscopic
Observations
Click Here to
Continue
URINALYSIS QUESTIONS
Urine Sample
1) What metabolic by-product from hemoglobin
colors the urine yellow?
2) How can adequate water intake be judged
by the color of urine?
3) What is hematuria?
4) What is the normal value for glucose in the
urine?
5) What is ketonuria
6) Elevated levels of white blood cells produce
what condition in urine?
7) What cells would be found in urine that
come from the urethra or bladder?
Click Here to
Print Urinalysis
Questions
Click Here to
Return to last
slide viewed
Click Here to
Continue
URINALYSIS
Urine Sample
You have now completed the Urinalysis lab.
You will need to include the following in
your lab report.
Macroscopic Observations Data Table
Chemstix Urinalysis Data Table
Microscopic Observations Data Table
Answers to Questions 1-7
Click Here to Simply End
the Urinalysis Lab
Click Here to
Go Directly to
Macroscopic
Observations
Click Here to
Go Directly to
Chemstix
Urinalysis
Click Here to
Go Directly to
Microscopic
Observations
Click Here to
Go Directly to
Urinalysis
Questions
REFERENCE
• The following pages are for reference for the
Microscopic Analysis
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Click on the eye piece to
view the sample at High
power. Identify and quantify
the characters listed in your
data sheet.
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Sediment Dye
START
RED
BLOOD
CELL
Click Here to Identify
other Sediment Particles
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Click on the eye piece to
view the sample at High
power. Identify and quantify
the characters listed in your
data sheet.
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Sediment Dye
START
WHITE
BLOOD
CELL
Click Here to Identify
other Sediment Particles
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Click on the eye piece to
view the sample at High
power. Identify and quantify
the characters listed in your
data sheet.
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Sediment Dye
START
EPITHELIAL
CELL
Click Here to Identify
other Sediment Particles
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Click on the eye piece to
view the sample at High
power. Identify and quantify
the characters listed in your
data sheet.
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Sediment Dye
START
BACTERIA
Click Here to Identify
other Sediment Particles
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Click on the eye piece to
view the sample at High
power. Identify and quantify
the characters listed in your
data sheet.
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Sediment Dye
START
CASTS
Click Here to Identify
other Sediment Particles
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS
Click on the eye piece to
view the sample at High
power. Identify and quantify
the characters listed in your
data sheet.
Urine Sample
Test Tube Rack
Eye Dropper
Sediment Dye
START
CRYSTALS
Click Here to Identify
other Sediment Particles
DATA SHEETS
• The following are three data sheets to be
used in the lab
MACROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS
DATA SHEET
Characteristic
Normal
Value or
Range
COLOR
Measured Results
(Circle One)
Normal
Abnormal
Possible Causes
(Enter only if
abnormal)
Colorless
Light to medium yellow
Very dark yellow
Red to brownish red
Reddish brown to brown
Greenish tint
TURBIDITY
Clear
Slightly cloudy
Cloudy
Opaque
Flocculent
ODOR
Odorless
Musty
Nutty
Sweet & Fruity
Maple syrup
Click Here for a
printable version of
this Data Sheet
Diagnosis ( use a √ )
Click Here to
Return
Click Here for a printable
version of this Data Sheet
Characteristic
Specific
Gravity
pH
Protein
Glucose
Ketone
Nitrite
Blood
Bilirubin
Leukocytes
Urobilinogen
CHEMSTIX URINALYSIS
DATA SHEET
Normal Value
or Range
Measured
Results
Diagnosis ( use a √ )
Normal
Abnormal
Click Here to
Return
Possible Causes
(Enter only if
abnormal)
MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS
DATA SHEET
Observed
Character
Normal
Value or
Range
Measured
Results
Diagnosis ( use a √ )
Normal
Abnormal
Possible Causes
(Enter only if
abnormal)
Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells
Casts
Crystals
Microorganisms
Epithelial Cells
Cancer Cells
Click Here for a
printable version of
this Data Sheet
Click Here to
Return

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