FU Business and Leadership Thesis Outline

Description

Look  carefully at your chosen artifacts ( i attached 3 files here with the chosen artifacts) .  What are common threads you can  pull between these artifacts?  A thread may not include all seven  artifacts, but it might be exemplified in two or more.
You may  have chosen a topic to develop during your time in your Leadership as a  Calling class.  This is where that topic can become a focal point in  your BLT essay.

Begin drafting an outline/list of the  characteristics of a successful business leader.  Make connections in  your outline to your artifacts so you can develop these ideas later.   (This does not have to be a formal outline.  Create a document that will  help you with planning the flow of your essay and shows the connections  between your artifacts and beliefs about business leaders.  See example  outlines in the Resource section below for ideas on what your outline  might look like.)
Submit your outline draft at the link above.   Be sure to submit your outline on time in order to receive full credit.   Outlines submitted later than one week after the deadline will not be  graded.
The final business leadership thesis paper will include :1
The Use of MIS at Inspiron
Lucas Oliveira
Friends University
Management Information Systems MIS-510-O1
Michael Sullenger
12/04/2022
2
The Use of MIS at Inspiron
Table of Contents
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Background of the problem …………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
Objectives……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
General ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Specific ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Literature Review …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Relationship between CRM and MIS……………………………………………………………………………… 5
Benefits………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
End-user Criteria …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
Network Integration …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
Maintenance Cost ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
Alternatives to Inspiron’s Challenge ………………………………………………………………………………. 8
Top Management Information Systems and their Costs ……………………………………………………. 8
Acme Insight……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
EAMbrace Asset Management …………………………………………………………………………………… 8
SmartDrive-BI/MIS System ………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
BuyerEase ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
HRiS365. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
Cost-benefit Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Recommendation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
Discussion and Analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
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Introduction
Inspiron is an eCommerce company that puts up different product portfolios on its
website, waits for customers to make orders, accepts them, and then delivers to them. The
company was founded on the premise that fast-moving consumer goods would effectively give
the company the entirety of the demand it needs to stay afloat (Anshari et al., 2019). However,
on the fringes, the company is slowly starting to bring other products on board because of an
urgent need for differentiation. This paper will give insights into how a Management Information
System will help Inspiron to streamline its Customer Relationship Management.
Background of the problem
Inspiron has been attempting to put together smooth, interconnected methods of
Customer Relationship Management using customer relationship agents. The company has been
doing this intending to realize a more progressive understanding of operational performance and
develop enhancements for improved results. However, the information the agents have to deal
with daily has proven to be overwhelming for them. Looking up web traffic statistics and trying
to analyze tools such as Python has proven to cause delays in report generation. The management
of Inspiron is tired of frequent failure and breakdown, including lengthy and accidental
interruptions and expensive unforeseen expenses that lead to losses and unsatisfied customers. If
Inspiron had a means of acquiring a management information system that would increase its
capacity to improve its predictive analytics capacity and machine learning, it would be able to
arrive at a decision that would ward off the occurrence of the challenges mentioned above.
However, the problem is that a management information system is too expensive.
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Objectives
General

To identify and have better knowledge of performance trends and patterns that will assist
the Inspiron e-company and its customers in experiencing a better product portfolio

Provide operative decision-making approaches for the electronic commerce services
offered by Inspiron

Predict and forecast unwanted outcomes, e.g., a compromise of methods that are required
so that Inspiron can better its customer service

Come up with a predictive model using client visit information on the Inspiron company
website and to be able to determine their tastes and preferences in the long run.
Specific

To conduct a cost-benefit analysis and determine whether a Management Information
System will help Inspiron scale its operations and realize more profit.
In the era of management information systems, predictive analytics, and machine learning,
the modest border of the offline layout has long stopped existing (Gil-Gomez et al., 2020). Many
companies in the e-commerce industry prefer MIS because it takes them one step closer to
having their companies’ projections to use an information pool to find out if a business process is
running seamlessly or will still be troubled by challenges such as frequent breakdown and
failure.
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Literature Review
Management Information System is currently a sensation in the corporate world and is
always emphasized in the e-commerce sector. Nonetheless, as an idea that remains many
hypothetical companies and is very ill-executed. Many innovative developments have been
realized for e-commerce companies that have received their stakeholders’ support and
implemented management information systems. MIS allows companies to realize niftier
applications and services that assist them in appealing to customers all year round. As such, for
any e-commerce company looking to realize improved relationships with customers, getting a
Management Information System on board is necessary to help link multiple business processes
affecting customers’ happiness.
Relationship between CRM and MIS
Companies looking to find out what customer relationship management is in a
Management Information System need to find out that CRM helps manage customer satisfaction
and clients, customers, and other relationships in business settings.
The keyword “customer” in CRM can be substituted by supplier, client, business partner,
or member. What is more, managing relationships could mean a diversity of many different
things. One important thing to consider is that CRM involves more than just managing
relationships with clients from a business point of view; it also connotes keenly listening to
customers and swiftly responding to what they need (Stair & Reynolds, 2020). CRM is an
approach that is client-centered and makes sure that all the customers are offered more value
than is expected and are given ‘asset treatment’ as opposed to being seen as a liability. This is
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realized by developing better customer services and products by improving customer and
organization relationships.
Benefits
There are many benefits that companies stand to realize when it comes to the use of
management information systems. The first common benefit of CRM and management
information systems is better support for the customer using increased sales. The second benefit
that comes with the use of CRM strategies powered by a management information system is
increased rates of customer loyalty and retention better (Mendling et al., 2018). Moreover, better
product development becomes possible when systems are implemented to manage customer
information. A fourth benefit revolves around increased profit margins after more sales are
realized. Fifth, higher sales volumes become possible for companies that use MIS-guided CRM
strategies because this helps them to target potential clients better (Mendling et al., 2018). Sixth,
a CRM strategy that MIS guides bring about an improved corporate image which stems from
better customer relations. The seventh proven benefit of a CRM powered by a management
information system is a limited number of consumer complaints because of better service levels.
Finally, Customer Relationship Management, which a Management Information System powers,
is bound to increase the number of repeat clients owing to the significant service levels the
organization involved provides.
End-user Criteria
In the realm of information technology, the term end user is utilized to distinguish
between the individual entity or company for whom a hardware or software product is made
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from the product’s developers, installers, and servicers. Management Information Systems are
designed so that end users can better their Business 2 Business relationships, Business 2
Consumer relationships, and Consumer to Business relationships. The role of MIS hardware and
software is to ensure that both the end user and their clients can arrive at the quality which suits
them best, agree on the best price of the goods and services involved, determine the locations or
outposts where deliveries are most convenient, and find out what needs to be promoted more for
the sake of customer information.
Network Integration
A business’s departments are interlinked, even for companies that do not have good
reporting cultures. Companies slowly realize that what a customer desires and makes a comment
or complaint about affects not only the sales and marketing department but even the IT
department, the CEO, and the HR department, among others (Rainer & Prince, 2021). For
example, if a customer were to complain that the Graphical User Interface of a company’s
website is poor with respect to user-friendliness and clarity, not only would it mean that the sales
and marketing department would lose out on targets of lead conversion, it would mean that other
company departments in the company are failing as well. For instance, it would mean that the IT
department is not doing its level best to make customers happy. Second, it would mean the HRM
department did not hire an IT team competent enough.
Maintenance Cost
Management Information Systems’ maintenance costs are very high, which often comes
off as a disadvantage. Regarding the issue of maintenance, the company involved has to decide
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whether it is looking to train its IT team on the new system or whether it will forever outsource
the vendor’s IT team to come to the rescue wherever there is a problem. Training the company IT
team and purchasing a management information system is very expensive. It is, therefore,
beneficial if a company chooses to incur one-off costs and recover the initial capital outlay later.
The advantage of a sound management information system is that it will not break down often,
and maintenance, in this case, will only involve expanding the memory capacity.
Alternatives to Inspiron’s Challenge
Top Management Information Systems and their Costs
The global market’s top five management information systems include Acme Insight,
EAMbrace Asset Management, SmartDrive-BI/MIS System, BuyerEase, and HRiS365.
Acme Insight
Acme Insight is considered comprehensive software tailored explicitly for wholesalers,
retailers, and distributors through consideration of all the complexities of their business
processes (Software Suggest, 2016). It is characterized by different kinds of valuable reports and
CRM modules that guarantee business growth. It is best for different types of businesses.
EAMbrace Asset Management
EAMbrace is fashioned to help companies of all sizes realize better management of their
assets, no matter their location. It plays the role of a perfect fixed asset register software
application (Software Suggest, 2016). For an e-commerce company, it would be best to control
drop-off and pick-up locations (e.g., warehouses).
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SmartDrive-BI/MIS System
BI/MIS Business intelligence is high-quality software that many players recommend as
effective for retrieving, transforming, analyzing, and reporting information for business
intelligence (Software Suggest, 2016). SmartDrive Labs is hailed by end users across the board
for its capacity to offer state-of-the-art technology. Its reviews showcase outstanding track
records of delivery and elated customers.
BuyerEase
It is an excellent tool for business processing that simplifies buying processes and offers
end-to-end solutions for end users. It manages businesses in the best way and offers multiple
productions per unit of time with respect to revenue, expansion, and reduction in lead time
(Software Suggest, 2016).
HRiS365.
HRiS365 comes with the promise of helping businesses manage people and more
business variables at any time and in any location.HRiS365 covers all stages that require a
business to interact with humans (Software Suggest, 2016). It is an indispensable application that
not only deals with customers and other external environment stakeholders but can also be used
for HRM purposes.
Cost-benefit Analysis
The table below shows the respective prices of the Management Information Systems
listed above. Depending on the system that Inspiron deems best, the company will accept an
offer from the five vendors below.
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MIS
Price
Premium price
Acme Insight
$30 a month
$ 35 a month
EAMbrace Asset Management
$28 a month
$ 30 a month
SmartDrive-BI/MIS System
$20 a month
$25 a month
BuyerEase
$15 a month
$20 a month
HRiS365
$ 10 a month
$15 a month
Recommendation
From the software listing and the prices presented above, it is safe to say that the most
expensive of the five software promises the highest quality service. As such, any serious
company management should go by Acme Insight. Acme Insight, even though pricey, should be
looked upon with the perspective of getting a company more lead generation and lead conversion
opportunities compared to its counterparts.
Committing to making payments of $30 a month on the low or a premium of $50 a month
would be an excellent way for an e-commerce company to make its target market more precise.
Considering the performance reviews that AcmeInsight is getting, there is a high chance that it
will present companies willing to give it a chance to proceed to the tune of 1000 percent of its
monthly premium of $50.
Discussion and Analysis
A top-tier management information system such as Acme Insight will be necessary for
Inspiron as it will help it review commonalities in customer tastes and preferences within short
notice. This will be important because the company’s management and operatives can make
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decisions quickly. Quickly managing customer information is vital because there will be no time
and money wasted on other unprofitable endeavors. For example, suppose Inspiron determines
that high sales of clothes and cutlery define the month of December. In that case, it will
concentrate on advertising these products more and making customers aware that they are being
sold at better prices.
Using a reliable Management Information System will help Inspiron increase the quality
of its products because it will get complete tallies of customer complaints and positive reviews.
The information realized will be key in developing the existing product portfolio and coming up
with new products. Considering that after getting information on what customers want, the
company will better its products and services, there is a high chance that customers will be more
responsive and increases sales volume. Afterward, Inspiron will be able to make supernormal
profits and develop a competitive edge against competitors.
The second benefit of a management information system would be helping Inspiron
determine the best price with which it can compete with rivals such as e-Bay. Note that there are
specific prices with which eBay and Ali Baba are selling their e-commerce merchandise
(depending on the product category). By having a management information system that gives the
managers and operatives of Inspiron updates, it becomes possible to charge prices that will
encourage customers to make more purchases; a move that will see Inspiron make a lot of profit.
Purchasing and using a Management Information System will help Inspiron derive
locational advantages and provide the same to its customers. Information will help the company
realize the urban locations and ruralities from which most customers come and, in turn, attune
the existing supply chain to suit the tastes and preferences of customers. Inspiron works by
delivering products to customers and also by having customers that are near warehouses make
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collections. With more information, customers will get their deliveries on time, and more
customer satisfaction and customer loyalty will follow.
Fourth, there is a high chance that a management information system will help Inspiron
to get the most out of the money it occasionally invests in the promotion. The e-commerce
industry is a perfectly competitive market, and customers and players have all the information
they need. With information on what customers are looking up mostly on the company’s website
at its predisposition, Inspiron will increase the relevance of its advertisements. Considering that
existing and prospective customers of the company are more responsive to adverts that align with
their immediate product needs, an MIS will help the company to get more sales.
Conclusion
In sum, it would take a bold step on the part of the management and operatives of
Inspiron to acquire and educate themselves about a Management Information System. This is
because Management Information Systems are often expensive and may force the company to
make a lot of budget cuts to maintain its usual growth, development, and sustainability.
However, the company stands to realize a positive paradigm shift that will develop multiple
competitive advantages over competitors, good relationships with all the customers, and a lot of
profits.
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References
Anshari, M., Almunawar, M. N., Lim, S. A., & Al-Mudimigh, A. (2019). Customer relationship
management and big data enabled: Personalization & customization of services. Applied
Computing and Informatics, 15(2), 94-101.
Gil-Gomez, H., Guerola-Navarro, V., Oltra-Badenes, R., & Lozano-Quilis, J. A. (2020).
Customer relationship management: digital transformation and sustainable business
model innovation. Economic research-Ekonomska istraživanja, 33(1), 2733-2750.
Mendling, J., Weber, I., Aalst, W. V. D., Brocke, J. V., Cabanillas, C., Daniel, F., … & Zhu, L.
(2018). Blockchains for business process management challenges and opportunities.
ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems (TMIS), 9(1), 1-16.
Rainer, R. K., & Prince, B. (2021). Introduction to information systems. John Wiley & Sons.
Stair, R., & Reynolds, G. (2020). Principles of information systems. Cengage Learning.
Software Suggest. (2016, 8). MIS management information system | Pricing and review.
Discover Top Business Software & Service
Partners. https://www.softwaresuggest.com/us/mis-software
1
Currency Powers
Lucas Oliveira
Friends University BSAD-575-O1
Due 3/12/2023
CURRENCY POWERS
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Currency Powers
Currency powers vary in different continents. Individuals, businesses, and governments
must understand the purchasing power of different currencies on different continents to make
informed decisions about investments, trade, and travel. By taking into account the exchange
rates and cost of living, one can better understand how far their money can go in a particular
country or region. Additionally, policymakers can use this information to develop economic
policies that promote growth and stability. Currency buying power refers to the amount of goods
and services that can be purchased using a particular currency. In some countries, the minimum
wage may provide enough buying power to live a comfortable life, whereas, in others, it may not
even cover basic necessities. It is essential to relate this concept to the concepts discussed in the
managerial finance course, such as financial analysis, forecasting, cost of capital, and risk
management.
Financial management is essential for businesses and individuals alike. It involves
making financial decisions to achieve an organization’s or individual’s goals and objectives. The
goals of financial management are to maximize profits, minimize costs, and increase shareholder
value (Shapiro & Hanouna, 2019). In today’s globalized world, financial management must
consider the impact of currency buying power on the economy and the people. For example, a
company operating in a country with a weak currency may find it challenging to import raw
materials or pay for the services of international consultants. In contrast, a company in a country
with a strong currency may find it easier to invest in foreign markets and expand its operations.
Financial analysis is a critical tool for financial management. It involves evaluating a
company’s financial health by analyzing its financial statements and ratios. When analyzing
financial statements, we must consider the impact of currency fluctuations on the company’s
CURRENCY POWERS
3
revenues and expenses. (Shapiro & Hanouna, 2019) For example, if a company operates in a
country with a weak currency, its exports will become more affordable, increasing revenues.
However, if the company imports raw materials or services, its costs will increase, leading to
decreased profits. Thus, a financial analysis must take into account the impact of currency
buying power on the company’s financial performance.
Forecasting is another crucial financial management tool. It entails forecasting the future
of finances based on historical trends and occurrences (Shapiro & Hanouna, 2019). While
making projections, we must consider the effect of currency fluctuations on the economy and the
financial performance of the organization. For example, a country with a strong currency may
experience increased inflation, leading to higher interest rates and reduced economic growth. In
contrast, a country with a weak currency may experience lower inflation, leading to lower
interest rates and increased economic growth. Thus, forecasting must take into account the
impact of currency buying power on the economy and the company’s financial performance.
The cost of capital is the permissible minimum rate of return on investment. It is the
expense of getting investment capital. When determining the cost of capital, we must consider
the impact of currency fluctuations on the economy and investment (Maggiori, Neiman &
Schreger, 2020). For example, if an investor is investing in a country with a weak currency, they
may require a higher return on their investment to compensate for the currency risk. In contrast,
if the investor is investing in a country with a strong currency, they may require a lower return on
their investment. Thus, the cost of capital must take into account the impact of currency buying
power on the investment.
CURRENCY POWERS
4
Examples of Minimum Wage Concept
The minimum wage is the smallest sum of money that an employer is obligated to pay an
employee for the job they have completed. The government determines the minimum wage, and
it is designed to provide workers with a minimal quality of life. Because of disparities in
currency purchasing power, the value of the minimum wage varies greatly among nations and
continents. For example, the minimum wage in the United States in 2021 was $7.25 per hour
(Duggan & Goda, 2021). In Mexico, the minimum wage was roughly $1.20 per hour. This
indicates that a full-time minimum-wage worker in the United States would make roughly
$15,080 per year, but a full-time minimum-wage worker in Mexico would earn just around
$2,496 per year. The federal minimum wage in the United States is $7.25 per hour. However,
many states and municipalities have set higher minimum wage rates. For example, the minimum
wage in California is currently $14 per hour, while in Texas, it is $7.25 per hour. The cost of
living also varies widely across the country, so the purchasing power of the minimum wage can
vary greatly depending on where you live.
The minimum wage in California is $14 per hour. A single adult in California would need
to earn at least $16.30 per hour to fulfill their basic requirements, according to the MIT Living
Wage Calculator, while a single parent with one kid would need to earn at least $34.56 per hour.
Even at the present minimum wage, it would be impossible for a single adult in California to
make ends meet without aid. In Texas, however, the minimum wage remains at the federal rate of
$7.25 per hour. Yet, Texas’s living cost is often cheaper than California’s. A single adult in Texas
would need to earn at least $12.32 per hour to fulfill their basic requirements, according to the
same MIT Living Wage Calculator, while a single parent with one child would need to make at
CURRENCY POWERS
5
least $25.60 per hour. Hence, while the minimum wage in Texas is lower, some people may still
make ends meet on this pay.
The minimum wage in Mexico is currently set at 141.7 Mexican pesos per day, roughly
equivalent to USD 7.10. According to the Numbeo cost of living index, the cost of living in
Mexico is generally lower than in the United States. For example, a meal at an inexpensive
restaurant in Mexico City costs around 80 Mexican pesos ($4.02), while a gallon of milk costs
around 31 Mexican pesos ($1.56). So, while the minimum wage in Mexico is lower than in the
United States, it is still possible to buy basic necessities with this wage due to the lower cost of
living. However, it is important to note that many Mexican workers earn more than the minimum
wage and still struggle to make ends meet due to high inflation and low economic growth.
Similarly, in Europe, the minimum wage varies greatly from nation to country due to
currency purchasing power disparities. For example, as of 2021, the minimum wage in Germany
was around €9.50 per hour, whereas it was approximately €2.50 per hour in Romania (Fuchs,
2021). This indicates that a full-time minimum-wage worker in Germany would make around
€19,760 per year, but a full-time minimum-wage worker in Romania would earn approximately
€5,200 per year. As a result, the individual working in Germany will have a luxury stay in
Romania. Romanians, on the other hand, could only fulfill their fundamental necessities if they
stayed in Germany.
CURRENCY POWERS
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Conclusion
The concept of currency buying power significantly impacts different continents,
affecting individuals’ economic growth and living standards in various ways. A strong currency
buying power allows people to purchase more goods and services with the same amount of
money, leading to a higher standard of living. In contrast, a weak currency buying power can
result in inflation, high prices, and lower purchasing power. Therefore, governments and
policymakers must maintain a stable currency buying power through effective monetary and
fiscal policies. By doing so, they can ensure economic stability and growth, improve the welfare
of their citizens, and promote sustainable development.
CURRENCY POWERS
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References
Duggan, M. G., & Goda, G. S. (2020). The Minimum Wage and Social Security Disability
Insurance. RDRC Working Paper 20-17. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic
Research. Available at: https://www. nber. org/sites/default/files/2021-02/NB20-17%
20Duggan% 2C% 20Goda. pdf.
Fuchs, M. (2021). Notes on the proposal for a directive on adequate minimum wages: a German
perspective. Italian Labour Law e-Journal, 14(1), 65-76.
Maggiori, M., Neiman, B., & Schreger, J. (2020). International currencies and capital
allocation. Journal of Political Economy, 128(6), 2019-2066.
Shapiro, A. C., & Hanouna, P. (2019). Multinational financial management. John Wiley & Sons.
1
Political Risk in Doing Business Globally: Brazil Compared to the USA
Lucas Oliveira
Friends University
MGMT-691 Global Business Experience
Kneeland C. Brown, Ed.D.
10/08/2022
2
Political Risk in Doing Business Globally: Brazil Compared to the USA
Abstract
The present research provides a synthetic overview of the history and latest developments
in the field of political risk assessment for foreign investors. After reviewing the numerous
definitions of political risk existing in the literature, approaches to political risk assessment are
discussed to highlight their shortcomings and provide cues for discussion and further research.
One of the most challenging problems in international business is determining how political risk
affects investment initiatives. One common strategy is to increase the project discount factor by
this spread, assuming that the sovereign yield spread covers the political risk. We demonstrate
how unsound this strategy is. While political risk influences the sovereign space, it also
represents other risks probably incorporated into the valuation exercise in political risk, resulting
in double-counting hazards. We suggest using political risk to eliminate double counting when
assessing foreign investment projects.
Introduction
Political risk is a type of risk that investors, corporate entities, and governments must deal
with because it involves the possibility that political decisions, actions, or circumstances will
significantly impact a business actor’s revenue growth or the predicted values of a specific
economic activity. Political risk’s effects can reduce returns on investments or make it impossible
to get your money out of a position. Political risk can be recognized and controlled with careful
investment and strategic planning. Because there are few case studies or large sample numbers
when analyzing a single country, political uncertainty is infamously challenging to measure. By
using international organizations or other governmental entities, certain political risks can be
covered.
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Numerous actions made by governments have the potential to have an impact on specific
companies, sectors, and the broader economy. Along with market-related considerations,
political movements can have an influence on enterprises. Political risk may negatively impact
many facets of international trade, including the freedom to export or import goods and own or
run a firm. As an illustration, it divides risk into categories based on economic affecting
international businesses, government interference, political climate, political violence,
cybersecurity, conversion and transference, tax policies, import and export policies, and political
stability.
Comparing and Evaluating political Risk Brazil and USA
Political Climate in USA and Brazil
First, before we go deep into political risk in Brazil and the USA, this paper must
evaluate the political climate to find a clear ground on what to expect in our research paper.
Furthermore, according to a report by the Pew Research Center published in February 2020,
polarization is at its highest level when it comes to contemporary political problems. Dealing
with climate change was the most political topic, with only 21% of Republicans and 78% of
Democrats citing it as a critical policy concern. Environmental protection, altering firearms laws,
and enhancing the nation’s military might are also very contentious concerns. As Republicans
and Democrats diverge their emphasis from strengthening the economy, these disparities in
policy goals become apparent. Democrats have seen a more pronounced decrease in relevance
when contrasted to Republicans since 2011, although both parties have increasingly lowered
economic growth and job development on their priority list. However, in the business world, this
might infect the future of the U.S. economy and international relations doing business in the
country.
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Brazil, on the other hand, is typically in south America. Brazil’s political and
administrative structure is made up of the federal government, 26 states, a federal district, and
municipalities. Brazil’s politics are conducted within the parameters of a multiparty system and a
national presidential representative democratic republic, in which the president serves as the
head of state and government. There are several political parties in Brazil’s unconstrained
multiparty system. Because some parties lack ideological coherence and members of Congress
frequently switch parties, electoral coalitions are weakened. At the same time, the large number
of political parties forces the Executive to form partnerships with various political parties that are
frequently ideologically incoherent in order to pass legislation. (Hillier and Loncan 2019).
1. Government Interference
Massive government spending on American production would have unexpected
repercussions that would be bad for the economy and business in the United States. One review
of such efforts shows that previous industrial policy attempts have incurred enormous
expenditures. The projects themselves frequently exceed early cost estimates, resulting in
opportunity costs due to forgone investment opportunities and the tax hikes needed to pay for the
extra expenditure delay economic development. Evidence also demonstrates that the government
trade sector displaces private funds that could have been deployed quicker and more efficiently.
Further investigation reveals that government economic reform expenditure favors companies
with stronger political connections and those that lobby more aggressively rather than making
investments that optimize consumer satisfaction. In addition, implementing government
investments sometimes takes years, during which new technologies may make such expenditures
outdated. One analysis of Europe’s industrial strategy attempts found that many of these
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programs either had short lifespans, had numerous delays, or failed to innovate the industry they
entered. Such an impact will affect most businesses with similar interest in investing in the USA.
Since 2012, the economic growth rate has been chiefly stagnant or trending down. This
tendency has decreased local demand and led Brazil’s natural to fall dramatically, limiting
Brazilian purchasing power for American-made goods (2021 Average Currency Rate $ 1 to BRL
5.3), which exacerbated the pandemic’s economic toll. President Bolsonaro vowed to depart from
Brazil’s heritage of protectionism and implement significant economic changes upon taking
office in 2019. While his administration has achieved particular strides, notably the much-needed
overhaul of Brazil’s retirement benefits and social security systems, a sizable portion of its
economic reform program is still unfinished. The pandemic’s ongoing effects, as well as the 2022
presidential election, are also factors.
2. Tax Policies
Without an FTA, Brazil places significant taxes and levies on imported products and
services from the U.S. and other markets. Brazil adds local and federal taxes and fees on imports,
which may essentially treble the price of imported goods there. The system is complicated in
addition to having high taxes, and the World Bank’s Doing Business report from 2020 placed it
184th out of 190 nations in terms of how easy it was to pay taxes. Even the most seasoned
businesses have significant difficulties while trading in and exporting to Brazil due to the
complexity of the country’s internal tax structure, which contains numerous spiraling levies and
tax conflicts between the various states. New U.S. exporters must seek expert advice to
comprehend how the tax system impacts certain businesses and goods (Tourinho 2018). When
faced with the perplexing bureaucracy involving taxes and tariffs, the U.S. Commercial Services
offers many connections, industry experts, and other resources that may assist American
6
exporters in thriving. Businesses may do a variety of things to become acquainted with the local
business and subsequently tackle these difficulties in Brazil. First and foremost, companies must
be ready to commit to the market over the long term since it will take time to create and develop
local connections. The business must be prepared to argue for your product’s overall quality and
worth, given that imported U.S. goods will probably cost more than equivalent local goods.
However, in the United States, Current American tax rates are not low. According to
several rate focuses, the combined federal and state corporate expense rate for the United States
in 2020 was about 25% higher than the global average for corporate assessment rates, 23 percent.
The U.S. rate placed it in the middle of advanced economies, ranking as the twelfth most notable
among the 37 countries. The U.S. would be less appealing for the venture if the U.S. rate
increased in any way. The U.S. would have a combined bureaucratic and state corporate duty
pace of 32 percent, making it the most notable country in the OECD under President Biden’s
proposed 28 percent government corporate expense rate (Verbeke et al., 2018). The U.S. would
be forced to use the worst evaluation system for new speculative work. The 28% corporation rate
recommended by President Biden is midway between the pre-2017 rate and the level mandated
after the assessment act, according to Depository Secretary Yellen. It would be significantly
below the group that had been put up for a long time. The Senate Money Board of Trustees
sought to lower the corporation tax rate for the U.S. for more than ten years in order to increase
the U.S.’s appeal to businesses looking to establish and expand operations and create well-paying
positions. Investors subject to high capital gains taxes may feel compelled to stick with their
current assets and refrain from making more profitable ones. According to some analyses, there
would be no capital gains tax, and the economy would grow. It has been demonstrated that
higher tax rates for corporation’s harm American businesses as a whole as well as American
7
firms. Some economists think incentivizing companies to reduce their expenditure and, as a
result, generate more cash for taxation, cutting the corporate income tax rate might also boost
government revenue. Other nations are significantly impacted by the corporation tax rate in the
United States (Verbeke et al., 2018).
3. Import and Export Policies
Exporters should prepare for a complex regulatory environment, inadequate or ineffective
protection of intellectual property and enforcement, and Brazilian-specific standards that
frequently receive little to no recognition from other countries’ international standards commonly
utilized in the United States. According to the 2019 International Competitiveness Report by the
World Economic Forum, Brazil now has the lowest burden of governmental regulation.
Additionally, in order to sell their goods in Brazil, businesses must be ready to adhere to
standards and technical specifications that differ from those in the United States. Due to a
complex tax system, cumbersome customs processes, and inadequate infrastructure, businesses
should be capable of dealing with significant expenses and delays when bringing products to
market. Despite Brazil’s major consumer of goods and services, public procurement can be
challenging if businesses lack the necessary relationships and knowledge. Although it has been
an observation since 2017, Brazil has not yet joined any organization (Andreoni and Tregenna
2020). However, it submitted an application to do so in May 2020. Brazil enacted new legislation
on public procurement in April 2021 to widen access to their market for overseas bidders.
However, U.S. exporters may still find themselves at a significant disadvantage if they lack an
in-country existence, through either formed collaborations with Brazilian organizations or a
Brazilian indicative, as well as the tenacity and financial means to address legal difficulties and
administrative problems.
8
Whenever possible, this study estimates how certain foreign trade restrictions and other
trade-distorting activities would affect American exports, international direct investment, or
electronic commerce. Estimates were not included in cases where talks pertaining to certain
foreign practices were ongoing at the time this report was published in order to protect those
consultations (Bekkers and Schroeter 2020). The figures in this study attempt to quantify the
possible impact of lifting certain trade restrictions on specific exports from the United States.
The total effect on American exports, either to the nation where a barrier has been found or to the
rest of the globe, cannot be calculated using the estimations. Because they impose expenses on
these exports that are not levied on commodities produced in the importing country, trade
restrictions or other trade-distorting policies have an impact on U.S. exports to other nations.
According to theory, in order to determine how much more expensive a foreign trade regulation
will make it for Americans to export their goods, they must also be aware of the state of the
markets in the U.S., the country implementing the measure, and third-party nations. In reality,
this information is frequently unavailable. Since there is no widely accessible assessment of
these limitations’ additional costs, it is far more challenging to determine how non-tariff
measures may affect U.S. exports. Similar to how a tariff raises domestic prices, quantitative
limits or import permits prevent or discourage imports (Bekkers and Schroeter 2020). However,
the expected effects of these policies on U.S. exports are impossible to calculate without
comprehensive information on price variations between nations and pertinent supply and demand
variables. Similarly, it is challenging to determine how other foreign practices, like shoddy
intellectual property rights protection or opaque standards, affect American exports.
4. Political Violence
9
Brazilian politics have historically been characterized by brutality, particularly in the
more arid poorer northeastern and northern regions where wealthy landowners have periodically
hired thugs to resolve political conflicts. According to analysts, a more divided Brazil, where
there are more firearms obtainable and new criminal gangs are establishing control in places like
Rio de Janeiro, has seen an increase in violence in recent years (Misse 2018). According to
Misse (2018), a researcher on electoral malpractices at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro,
the risks are higher in municipal politics, where crimes frequently go unsolved. Even after the
election was called, the violence persisted. Rio exhibits a pattern. He claimed that in the heart of
the nation, where near impunity prevails, many political assassinations remain unsolved.
International conducting business in Brazil will be faced with the challenge of insecurity due to
violence that occurs and goes unresolved. There is a pattern in Rio. Criminal gangs, drug
smuggling, or armed militia organizations are the major causes of political violence.
Over the past five years, there has been a tremendous increase in the acceptance of
political violence. The increase in violent crimes from 2016 to 2020—and their likely decline in
2021—does not indicate that the threat has subsided. Instead, it provides information about the
threat’s characteristics and root causes. The patterns we observe in the spring of 2022 point to
violent conduct in the United States that can be sparked impulsively by social events or
purposefully directed toward political purposes. Politically motivated violence will likely
increase during election seasons and decline between them. Our democracy is already suffering
tremendous harm from this violence and the conspiracies fueling it, and this damage will only
worsen. The 2020 election cycle marked a turning point in the acceptability of violence as a
tactic for politics, especially among Republicans. Republicans increasingly favor violence during
election month. Democratic arguments increase in some cases but decrease in others, and their
10
popularity follows Republican sentiment and increases more slowly. Even though this does not
affect international business now, it might come in the future. If the political violence in the
United States continues in the ever-coming election, every investor must be prepared.
5. Cybersecurity
According to Soni (2020), 29% of the 4,625 risk managers surveyed rank cybersecurity
as the greatest threat to their company, followed by reputation risk and financial consequences as
the most severe threats. The typical risk manager anticipates a slight rise in danger in 2020, with
above 30% of risk managers citing cybersecurity as their top concern. The report emphasizes
businesses’ need to keep improving their risk management techniques. While the core concepts
of managing risks, such as assessment and identification, are extensively used, many domainspecific procedures are still not well recognized. According to the research, the most significant
cybersecurity concern for businesses is the emergence of new technology and modifications to
existing I.T. in the USA. The majority of respondents, 64%, believe that technology innovation
is a significant issue for their business. Other difficulties include the evolving threat
environment, a shortage of qualified cybersecurity professionals, and workers without the
required cybersecurity expertise. The cloud is not a new technology, yet most businesses still
struggle with it. Seven out of ten enterprises cite cloud computing as a technology that is raising
their vulnerability, trailed by the Internet of Things, advanced analytics and intelligent systems,
and then the cloud. Reputational and political issues hamper many businesses. The survey found
that at least 50% of companies struggle to quantify the political and financial that may have an
impact on their operations. Unsurprisingly, a lack of assessment also results in a failure to handle
the issues. Almost the same number of people believe it is difficult or worse to reduce the
dangers of political or economic harm.
11
Brazil ranked sixth on a list of nations that lost the most money to cybercrime in 2017, a
figure that is expected to be over US$5 billion (Hurel and Lobato 2018). In addition, the fourth
Report on Digital Security in Brazil shows that the number of cyberattacks against Brazilian
businesses nearly quadrupled in 2018. It is not unexpected that more businesses now use cyber
insurance, given the increased number of cyber dangers that organizations must contend with. As
a means of shielding their assets from the financial effects of a breach, organizations are
adopting cyber insurance in more significant numbers. In Brazil, giant corporations and
governmental institutions are not the only cybercrime targets. Regular people, tourists,
and businesses are commonly the targets of crime. More than 100,000 cases of internet-related
fraud were reported to the Brazilian authorities in 2016, but this number is probably understated.
Over 50% of all monetary operations in Brazil, following the Brazilian Federation of Banks, are
conducted via world wide web devices, creating a sizable opportunity for cybercrime. A
significant producer and exporter of cybercrime is Brazil. Brazil ranks third internationally in
terms of the origins of malware, spam, and phishing assaults, according to a recent analysis by
the cyber-security firm Symantec, with well above 5% of all threats to the world detections
coming from there.
6. Conversion and Transference
Brazil continues to be appealing to foreign investors despite its internal economic
problems and slower-than-anticipated global economic growth due to several financial
indicators, including its sizeable and expanding consumer market, comparative political and
financial stability, and control over inflation. Brazil has made notable progress in modifying its
legal framework to entice foreign direct investment, similar to other nations in Latin America.
Currently, Brazil’s government is implementing a significant privatization plan. Brazil is also
12
making preparations to join the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Coordination as a
full member, intending to strengthen investor and company confidence. The acquisitions and
mergers landscape in Brazil is ever-changing. Due to the continuous changes in tax rules, there
are both possibilities for tax preparation and dangers that might disappoint M&A tax experts.
The Brazilian tax law also allows a great deal of freedom for tax planning while sometimes
appearing rigid. Everywhere, but especially in Brazil, good purchase due diligence is crucial.
The analysis of Brazilian objectives and negotiations may become quite challenging due to the
intricate nature of the tax system and the substantial quantity of tax litigation required to address
tax concerns, among other problems. Brazil has complicated and intertwined tax laws, resulting
in a generally high tax burden. Brazil has long been worried about BEPS as a receiver of
significant direct investment from abroad. Several global tax regulations and other measures
have been in place in the nation for a period to stop the flow of earnings outside the government,
including thin capitalization regulations, high withholding tax (WHT) rates for money transfers
to tax haven jurisdictions, restrictions on the deduction of royalties, and CFC regulations.
Despite this, Brazil has participated in OECD activities as a G20 nation, and the Brazilian
Revenue Service has indicated that it plans to implement BEPS proposals.
7. Political stability
Many people in the U.S. and abroad were caught off guard by the Capitol rebellion on
January 6. Close observers of the Fragile Countries Index might not have been shocked. The
index, created annually by the charity Fund for Peace, evaluates various nations’ challenges that
could jeopardize their stability. Many countries have lessened their vulnerability over the last ten
years. The United States, on the other hand, has lost equilibrium (Hartigan et al., 2021). The
nation is among the several countries with the most significant percentage increases in
13
comparative fragility over the previous ten years, along with the U.K., Syria, and Venezuela. The
U.S. has experienced a sharp decline in what the index refers to as cohesiveness. This indicator
reveals internal differences, despite the fact that it remains stable according to several of the
index’s political, economic, and social variables. The 2020 score, which hasn’t yet been
determined, will probably decline even more in light of the pandemic, recession, riots, and
political unrest. I predict that the U.S. score will significantly reduce globally and across all
categories. When it concerns fragility, a cluster of interconnected elements raises the alarm
(Hartigan et al., 2021). Then again, Political stability has an immediate impact on corporate
health. And although President Trump’s promises for fiscal stimulus and anticipated regulatory
reform give encouragement to American firms, the president’s history of dramatic and
unpredictable policies. Because of recent immigration restrictions, for example, canceled trade
deals and pledges to construct a wall along the border, there is the ambiguity that may have a
negative impact on companies in 2017. For people that conduct international business, this is
especially valid.
The administration of President Jair Bolsonaro seeks unrestricted and socially
conservative reforms, which are applauded by the Brazilian corporate sector and continue the
previous administration’s market-oriented policies. The Congress is highly divided and polarized,
with 30 parties represented in the house of representatives and 21 in the Senators, and the
governing Partido Social Liberal holding only 10% of the seats in the lower house. This makes it
difficult to make economic policy. In an effort to lessen the possibility of an impeachment that
surfaced earlier this year and to enhance his ability to govern, Bolsonaro, who currently controls
without the need for a formal coalition, has recently allied with center-right parties in Congress,
which together retain approximately one-third of seats within the lower house. Due to
14
Bolsonaro’s adversarial leadership style, his socially conservative beliefs, and his peculiar
rebuttal to the coronavirus outbreak—in which he disputed the severity of the illness, regional
governments were responsible for taking containment measures—political and social
polarization grew (Hillier and Loncan 2019). However, the emergency aid payments made to
low-income individuals in reaction to the coronavirus epidemic have improved his popularity
since the summer of 2020. A preliminary assessment of Bolsonaro’s chances for reelection will
be made based on the results of the local elections in November 2020. In advance of the
presidential elections in October 2022, political uncertainty can return.
Key Findings
When discussing key findings from the research paper on international business, one
realizes that there are some challenges a business will face along the way that a corporation
should be ready to keep some critical factors in mind. First, we begin with legal ramifications.
Cross-border firms must cope with the legal systems of a number of distinct nations. Age, the
treatment of people with disabilities, pay levels, employment, surroundings, and other factors
might be different. Therefore, following all national laws has an impact on how multinational
corporations operate. A number of foreign financing institutions may also impact the legal
environment and workplace rules. Secondly, the other key finding is political variables. Global
commerce is either helped or hampered by the various political concerns of the participating
nations. Political stability, rules governing international commerce, the activities of new
administrations, and many other factors all have an impact on the trade agreements that
governments of different nations join into. Thirdly, the last key finding is elements of
technology. Economic expansion and societal development are factors accelerated by
technology. Consequently, they have both beneficial and destructive effects on the nations
15
because of cross-border companies and cybersecurity matters impacted by technology on
businesses. Furthermore, it may raise local enterprises’ standards to those of the global
marketplace or pose a grave danger to their continued survival.
Overall Personal Professional Growth
From an individual perspective on the concept of personal growth in international
business, the concept that contributes to one’s professional growth is exposure to global
perspectives. One is learning about the difficulties businesses confront on a worldwide scale,
including commerce, international economics understanding, and how to communicate with
people from various cultural backgrounds. One’s worldview will be widened, and the ability to
comprehend many viewpoints will improve with this issue-solving method. One can obtain
relevant experience working with individuals from around the world while studying international
business is a popular subject among the global business establishment—managerial abilities
when working on international trade. Writing papers, giving presentations, and participating in
individual and team projects are all part of studying international business in this course.
Essential managerial abilities will be developed (Van Zanten and Van Tulder 2018).
Increasing overall employability, an extensive degree in International Business will
introduce one to various talents that businesses seek. As one goes through the comprehensive
course, one will start to customize own path and focus on the business tasks that most interest
them. One may anticipate obtaining employment in various fields, including management,
marketing, consulting, and more. Address business problems. By analyzing business
management, one may diagnose regional and global company problems and come up with
ambitious plans. One can gain the knowledge and abilities necessary to explore a career in
consultation or administration for a multinational corporation by investigating global markets
16
and engaging in negotiations with people from other cultures and nations (Van Zanten and Van
Tulder, 2018). Building one’s business expertise, learning how to manage teamwork, enhancing
financial results, researching global rivals, and redesigning corporate procedures are just a few of
the things one learns during the course. Each individual will strengthen their abilities through the
elective course in essential areas. This fundamental understanding is necessary for the operation
of any organization.
In conclusion, the research has evaluated most of the political risks faced by most
international businesses in Brazil and the USA. However, the study’s most significant finding is
that political risk management strategies and how they impact the foreign company may be
separated into several categories to reveal how they influence economies in both nations. For
instance, it categorizes risk based on factors including the economy’s impact on global business,
government meddling, the political environment, political violence, cybersecurity, conversion
and transference, tax laws, import and export rules, and political stability: key finding and
professional growth outcome of the course.
17
References
Andreoni, A., & Tregenna, F. (2020). Escaping the middle-income technology trap: A
comparative analysis of industrial policies in China, Brazil and South Africa. Structural
Change and Economic Dynamics, 54, 324-340.
Bekkers, E., & Schroeter, S. (2020). An economic analysis of the US-China trade conflict (No.
ERSD-2020-04). WTO Staff Working Paper.
Brazil – Market Challenges. (n.d.). International Trade Administration | Trade.gov. Retrieved
September 17, 2022, from https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/brazilmarket-challenges
Duran, M. M., & Stephen, S. A. (2020). Internationalization and the capital structure of firms in
emerging markets: Evidence from Latin America before and after the financial
crisis. Research in International Business and Finance, 54, 101288.
Hartigan, R., Parker, L., Nowakowski, K., & Marques, D. (2021, May 3). An index measuring
country stability finds the U.S. dropping. History. Retrieved September 17, 2022, from
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/index-measuring-country-stabilityfinds-united-states-dropping
Hillier, D., & Loncan, T. (2019). Political uncertainty and stock returns: Evidence from the
Brazilian political crisis. Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, 54, 1-12.
Hurel, L. M., & Lobato, L. C. (2018). A Strategy for Cybersecurity Governance in Brazil.
Igarape Institute.
Misse, M. (2018). Violence, criminal subjection and political merchandise in Brazil: an overview
from Rio. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, 7, 135-148.
18
Silva, V. A. V. (2022). Political risk analysis in the regional agricultural sector: the case of
dairy in Brazil (Doctoral dissertation).
Soni, V. D. (2020). Challenges and Solution for Artificial Intelligence in Cybersecurity of the
USA. Available at SSRN 3624487.
Tourinho, M. (2018). Brazil in the global anticorruption regime. Revista Brasileira de Política
Internacional, 61.
Verbeke, A., Coeurderoy, R., & Matt, T. (2018). The future of international business research on
corporate globalization that never was…. Journal of International Business
Studies, 49(9), 1101-1112.
Van Zanten, J. A., & Van Tulder, R. (2018). Multinational enterprises and the Sustainable
Development Goals: An institutional approach to corporate engagement. Journal of
International Business Policy, 1(3), 208-233.
19
Appendix
This paper talks about political risks in doing international business in Brazil and USA;
the report has shared some of the dangers in both countries and the effects of operating a
company in any country. With both differences, political risk shared in both countries will give a
company planning to establish in any of the countries a precise evaluation on which country they
might be less at political risks and more multinational business friendly. Comparison has been
established to determine which country has more political chance that might affect an
international company, then finally, key finding and professional growth outcome of the course.
Focal Point Topic – Differences of “Big Businesses” and “Small Businesses” in Leadership and Planning
How to get this to work with Leadership styles / Operations strategies to help a company be
successful or not, what can big businesses do that small companies can’t that make it more challenging
for smaller companies or family owned shops.
Types of leadership?
Hands On (Helpful but not controlling)


Leadership Final paper
Global Relations business examples
Micro-Manager (bad).. Examples? ((bad examples to help solidify choice of leadership style)

Bad SOPs in projects, meetings, and documentation
Organizational Skills


Marketing Plan
Operations Management Time Sheet
Relational (Not common type of leadership)



Examples from Real World Supervisor (Walking the floor, Rob)
Showing appreciation and authentic interest in employee’s lives
o Leadership class)
Making relationships to better manage a team
o Global Business, Projects (FSNP)
Budgeting (In a sense of talents, not money)


Knowing team’s strengths and weaknesses
“Budgeting” to improve performance and assist people with weaknesses to become better
individuals and employees. Scheduling to not stress but perform the best for all individuals a
part of the team
Common Threads between artifacts



Planning
Accepting constructive criticism
Organizing (schedules, assignments, people, etc..)
Running head: BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
Effective Leadership in Business and Information Technology Now and in the Future
Matthew P. Benoit
Friends University, Wichita, Kansas
Author Note
Matthew P. Benoit, Master of Management Information Systems Student, Friends University
Correspondence concerning this document should be addressed to Matthew P. Benoit, 1305
North Main, Rose Hill, Kansas, 67133. Contact: matthew.p.benoit@gmail.com, 316-617-8034
1
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
2
Abstract
The business and information technology (IT) environment of 2021 and beyond is complex and
dynamic unlike many we have seen in modern times. With an ever-increasing reliance on
systems and data to conduct day-to-day tasks, combined with the challenges of a skilled
workforce shortage, increased globalization, and an increased number of attacks by malicious
actors looking to access critical data, the leaders of today and tomorrow have a challenging road
ahead. The leader in IT and business in 2021 must be many things; however, being versatile,
communicative, and observant/intentional are at the top of the list. They must be versatile,
skilled as mentors, coaches, directors, disciplinarians, and any other role that is required of them;
leaders today have many roles and they must be able to perform them all well. They must be
skilled communicators because everything a leader does is through communication. With an
increase of remote work and globalization, the challenges of communication with remote teams
and cross-cultural communication with other cultures is more important than ever. Lastly, leaders
must lead themselves by always being observant to what is going on around them to be a
proactive leader and not reactive. They must also be intentional in everything they do to be the
leader the future will require. Through versatility, effective communication, and
observation/intentionaliy, the leader of the future will be able to navigate the challenges of a
workforce shortage, increased globalization, and an increasing number of cyber attacks.
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
3
Effective Leadership in Business and Information Technology Now and in the Future
Introduction/Problem Statement
Leading in Information Technology (IT) and business is different now than in previous
times. In technology, the landscape is a very complex and dynamic one where problems of
varying scope can present themselves very quickly, requiring management and leadership to
quickly prioritize efforts to meet the business need. The emergence of the Coronavirus-2019
(COVID-19) pandemic also accelerated many changes across the IT and business environment.
One thing is certain, however, and that is the fact that strong and effective leadership is required
to face many of the challenges in IT and business, some of which are mentioned in greater detail
below.
Skilled Workforce Shortage. It is estimated that the global cybercrime pandemic will
cost $6 trillion annually by 2021 (Morgan, 2017) with an estimated 3.5 million vacant
cybersecurity positions, up from 1 million in 2014 (Perhach, 2018). Attracting, developing, and
retaining information technology professionals was the second highest concern in a recent survey
of over 1,400 Chief Information Officers, behind only information technology and business
alignment. (Luftman & Kempaiah, 2007, p. 130). In Marketing the Information Technology
Profession Now and in the Future (artifact), I studied how the IT profession, to include
cybersecurity, can attract, develop, and retain IT professionals to bridge the massive gap between
the supply and demand for IT professionals needed in the workforce of today and tomorrow.
Increasing Globalization. It is no secret that today’s business environment is a global
one. In 2006, Slywotzsky et al. argued that globalization is creating opportunities for new value
creation and highly profitable growth at the two ends of the value chain – new customer
connections at one end and new models of innovation at the other. Their hypothesis was proven
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
4
correct, evidenced by the boom of globalization in business and IT in the years since. However,
since the COVID-19 pandemic, the workforce is more global as well. With innovation in
teleworking capabilities brought by the pandemic, it is now possible for a company, domestic or
global, to have a global workforce. In Cross-Cultural Communication Between the United States
and South Korea (artifact), I argued that the United States should take advantage of the highly
skilled South Korean IT workforce. I also provided a roadmap with tips for effective crosscultural communication for a business professional from the United States interacting with a
South Korean professional.
Increased Cyber Threat Activity. In 2018, there was a 350% increase in ransomware
attacks, a 250% increase in spoofing or business email compromise attacks, and a 70% increase
in spear-phishing attacks in companies from 2017 (Garrett, 2018). This means that cyber-attacks
are occurring at a much more frequent rate than in the past, and the financial services industry
are prime targets. In 2020, the global financial services market was valued at $20.4 trillion and is
expected to grow to $22.5 trillion by the end of 2021 (Business Research Company, 2021) while
the average cost per breach within financial services was $5.86 million (Cybersecurity Guide,
2021). With a growing amount of assets being put in the financial services market coupled with
the increasing reliance on data and systems (mobile apps, cloud computing and storage, etc.), it
is more important than ever for banks to keep financial data secure. In Securing Business and
Consumer Financial Data Now and in the Future (artifact), I give an overview of current
regulations and regulatory bodies that govern the safekeeping of financial data and give
businesses ten recommendations to safeguard financial data.
What are the two things that all three of these problems have in common? First, while
they involve systems, they require people to fix. And secondly, any endeavor that requires people
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
5
requires leadership. Leadership is the single most important indicator of whether a business can
navigate and solve the problems presented above. There are three things that business and IT
leader of the future must be to navigate the challenges listed as well as the challenges not listed
to be effective in the fast-paced, complex, and extremely dynamic environments that they find
themselves today and in the future. With that said, the effective business and IT leader of the
future must be versatile, communicative, and observant/intentional.
As a Master of Management Information Systems student at Friends University, my final
paper in each course revolved around one common theme: preparing the IT and business
environment for 2021 and beyond. As such, that is also the theme of my capstone portfolio and
the artifacts included in the portfolio have been, and will continue to be, referenced throughout
this Business Leadership Thesis essay. In addition to the artifacts, I will also reference personal
experiences as a leader and IT professional where appropriate to support my conclusion that
versatility, communication, and observation/intentionality are the foundations of effective
leadership now and in the future.
The Leader of the Future Must Be Versatile
Overview. The demands of business and IT leaders now and in the future are vast and
only continue to grow in the complex environment leaders find themselves. The business and IT
leader of the future must be versatile. Merriam-Webster has three definitions of versatile:
1. Embracing a variety of subjects, fields, or skills
2. Having many uses or applications
3. Changing or fluctuating readily
Robert Kaiser, in the Harvard Business Review, defines a versatile leader as those who
have the ability to cope with a variety of changes and the wherewithal to resolve competing
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
6
priorities and also claims that versatility is the single most important component of leading
effectively today (2021).
Situational Leadership Approach. Leader versatility is best captured through the
situational leadership approach that was studied in Leadership as a Calling and further dissected
in the Effectively Leading Information Technology Professionals in 2021 and Beyond (artifact).
The situational approach to leadership is an approach that focuses on each situation; determining
an employee’s readiness to perform a specific task, and the level of the task or relationshiporiented leader behavior required to complete the task (Hersey & Blanchard, 1993). It is
predicated on finding the right balance between direction (task-orientation) given and emotional
support (relationship-orientation) given to effectively perform a given task. Dependent upon how
ready a follower is to perform the task, the leader is either telling, selling, participating, or
delegating. When the leader is telling within the situational approach, they are directing how a
task will be accomplished. When confidence rises in the specific task and follower readiness
rises, the leader turns into a seller. When selling, it is more collaborative of an interaction;
however, it is less directive and more of a two-way conversation where the leader develops the
thought process of the employee and attempts to gain buy-in. Next in the continuum is
participating. When employee readiness raises, the leader becomes more behavior-oriented and
less task-oriented. The leader collaborates with the employee on the best course of action. Last,
when employee readiness is highest, the leader delegates because they trust the task to be
accomplished without leader intervention.
Versatility Expanded. The situational leadership model dictates that a leader responds as
a director (high-task/low-relationship), a salesman (high-task/high-relationship), a participant
(low-task/high-relationship), or a delegator (low-task/low-relationship). Effective leaders carry
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
7
out many roles, to include coach, mentor, technical expert, trainer, therapist, disciplinarian,
parent, author, and more; many of them can be found somewhere along the continuum described
in the situational leadership model. The two most important factors of leader versatility are:
1. The leader effectively diagnosing the task readiness of the follower within the
situational leadership model. In a broader sense, this means the leader observes a
situation and correctly determines the appropriate response for the situation and
which role to assume of the many, but not limited to, listed above.
2. Once the leader determines the appropriate response, they must execute effectively.
Can they coach and train someone well? Can they have hard conversations? Can they
resolve conflict? Can they impose discipline? Can they be compassionate and show
empathy? Effective diagnosis means nothing if the leader does not have the versatile
skillset to execute effectively.
It is important for leaders to not only be versatile in their leadership skill set, but also in
the knowledge that they possess. It is important for business and IT leaders, particularly senior
leaders, to have a general knowledge of other aspects of the business. This sentiment is the
reason I included Strategic Marketing Plan: Victory in the Valley (artifact) into the capstone
portfolio. While it does not have much to do with IT specifically, it is important for IT leaders to
understand Marketing among other aspects of the business such as operations, human resources,
manufacturing, etc. Effective leaders have a general understanding of all aspects of a business. I
believe the marketing plan artifact demonstrates that ability for myself which is why I included it
in the portfolio.
Personal Application. Throughout my time in the military, rising through the ranks over
the past decade, the best leaders I have had have also been the most versatile. The most
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
8
influential leader I have ever seen had an innate ability to know when to apply which leadership
strategy. He held me accountable and respectfully told me what I needed to hear, not always what
I wanted to hear. He was also the most compassionate leader I have worked around and knew
when to extend grace and show empathy, which helped me through some of the most challenging
times of my career.
Recently, as my span of supervisory control has expanded and I supervise managers who
are charged with leading their own teams, I am seeing the importance of leader versatility play
out in my own career. I lead a very diverse group of people with vastly different backgrounds
and experience levels. As a leader, it is my responsibility to get the most out of them and our
team, and I do so through being versatile and knowing when to deploy which leadership tactics.
On any given day, I am leading, mentoring, coaching, resolving conflict, providing top cover,
and more. At the end of the day, leaders do whatever they need to do to lead their teams to
maximum performance. I have learned through experience that when leaders are versatile, it
builds influence and trust with team members.
Conclusion: Application to Problem. Leader versatility is directly correlated to the
degree of success that business and IT leaders have in solving the stated challenges of workforce
shortages, increased globalization, and increased cyber threat activity. All three of these
challenges are vastly different from each other and they all require different things from the
leader.
In dealing with a workforce shortage, I stated in Marketing the Information Technology
Profession Now and in the Future (artifact) that the three keys were attracting the right
candidates, developing employees effectively, and establishing and strengthening retention
programs. Effective leaders are involved in all three; they direct which candidates are hired, they
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
9
coach/develop employees, and they influence employees to stay with their organization through
their leadership, empowerment, growth opportunities, competitive salaries, and more. All three
require different things, oftentimes from the same individual, the leader; the versatile ones will
succeed.
Within the realm of increased globalization, the IT and business leader must be adept in a
whole different set of skills, to include diplomat, cross-cultural negotiator, cultural expert and
more. It is important for leaders working in global companies to understand the culture in which
they are conducting business; at best this builds trust and at worst, it prevents preventable, often
honest misunderstandings from happening when working across cultural lines.
And lastly, in dealing with the problem of the increased cyber-attack presence in the face
of a growing attack surface, business and IT leaders must be proficient enough at the tactical,
technical level to be able to make decisions and guide their teams to success. If the leader does
not have a good enough understanding of the tactical level, it will be difficult for them to lead
their team.
A leader’s effectiveness is directly correlated to how versatile they are. It is difficult to be
versed in so many different areas, but it is necessary in the face of the challenges that business
leaders face in 2021 and beyond. We owe it to our teams to be the most effective leader we can
possibly be.
The Leader of the Future is Communicative
Overview. The business and IT leader of the future must be an expert communicator.
There are communication challenges in the current operating environment that weren’t present in
the past. The COVID-19 pandemic brought more remote work than before, oftentimes with
entire teams geographically separated for months on end; some of which remain geographically
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
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separated permanently after deciding the benefits of remote work outweigh the costs. In the face
of increasing globalization, business and IT leaders must be culturally aware and must fully
understand the implications their communication has on cross-cultural business relationships. In
IT specifically, it is important for leaders, especially the executives, to be able to translate IT
language into business context and vice versa. It is vitally important for business and IT leaders
to be proficient in all areas of communication such as verbal, written, and non-verbal; however,
for the scope of this thesis, the focus areas within communication will be remote work, crosscultural communication, and IT to business translation.
Remote Work. When conducting remote work, miscommunication due to missed context
from not having face-to-face meetings is one of the biggest problems remote managers face
(Johnson, 2019). Because of missed context, intentional, direct, and purposeful communication
is paramount to preventing miscommunication within remote teams. Another challenge of remote
and geographically separated teams is the missed collaboration that occurs when team members
are near each other; the collaboration that happens outside of meetings or feedback sessions. Pam
Stanford claims that one of the most important skills a leader can have when leading remote
teams is establishing a purpose. When leaders establish a clear purpose, it gives them a
benchmark to measure the success of the team, thus allowing for leaders to establish goals and
incentives for the team. When team members have a purpose, goals, and incentives to work
towards, individual and team motivation and productivity are higher (2003). I agree with
Stanford; when the leader can effectively communicate a purpose to their remote team, they are
able to easier unite the team behind a common effort and strategy to bridge the gap between the
missed context and collaboration from working remotely. In Effective Leadership in Business
and Information Technology Now and in the Future Future (artifact), where I dove deeper into
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
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the skills approach to leadership, I stated that communication was one of the most important
skills a leader should possess because of the reasons previously mentioned.
Personal Experience: Remote Work. When the pandemic first began, our organization
sent 90% of our personnel home. We saw immediately the challenges that it presented; it seemed
that the individuals working remotely were not involved in daily operations and worked only on
a standby basis. We quickly learned it would not work without frequent, very deliberate
communication. We implemented a communication strategy that included morning and afternoon
calls, we made staff turn on webcams to get face to face interaction, sent more emails than
normal, and established mission and vision statements for that phase in the pandemic lifecycle
for our organization. We also conducted social events through zoom some evenings. Once we
established a communication strategy and framework, the team worked towards a common
purpose and productivity increased drastically. None if it would have been possible without
effective communication on the part of the leadership team to create and effectively execute a
communication strategy while remote working.
Cross-Cultural Communication. In the increasingly global business environment of
today, leaders are finding themselves working in, or with, companies and employees in other
countries; it is important for leaders to understand how their words, language, and
communication affects cross-cultural relationships. In Intercultural Communication in the Global
Workforce, Varner and Beamer state that “culture and language are intertwined and shape each
other.” They also claim that “each time we select words, form sentences, and send a message,
either oral or written, we make cultural choices (Varner & Beamer, 2010, pp. 44)”. I
wholeheartedly agree with their assessment and would argue that a third element of
communication, non-verbal communication, should be added with verbal and written
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
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communication into their assessment of how we communicate culture. Each time we speak,
write, or make a non-verbal gesture, we are communicating culture. We are communicating our
own culture, we are communicating our understanding of other cultures, and we are
communicating our cultural literacy, sensitivity, and awareness towards other cultures. If not
used effectively across cultural lines, our communication can communicate exclusion,
ethnocentrism, and more, even if not intended. If used effectively across cultural lines, our
communication can bring people together, build relationships, and be productive for all involved.
Communication is how we communicate our values, norms, and traditions. It is the vehicle in
which we make our culture known to the world. Without any cultural awareness of how we
communicate, it can impact, both positively and negatively, our cross-cultural effectiveness.
In Cross-Cultural Communication Between the United States and South Korea (artifact),
I made recommendations to prepare an American business professional for a business meeting
with South Korean counterparts. They are general recommendations that can be used for
anybody engaging in cross-cultural communication; they are to:

Study the overall culture of the country

Understand basics of cross-cultural communication

Establish relationships prior to meeting

Understand the legal system and applicable governing bodies
By following the recommendations above, leaders will be adequately prepared for
communication with those from other countries. As leaders progress the relationship, they are
communicating through the entire process and they must understand how language, words, nonverbal, and any other communication taken communicates not only their own culture, but their
cultural intelligence (CQ) towards other cultures.
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
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Personal Experience: Cross-Cultural Communication. During a phase of the
Afghanistan war, the strategy was to build relationships with the local village elders, tribal
leaders, and general populace. Doing so, they thought, would influence the locals to not support
or provide a safe haven to the Taliban. They knew Afghanistan was a very tribal country with
many living by a tribal code of honor passed down to them from generations ago. If the village
elders decided they were not going to support the Taliban, the Taliban would have a difficult time
performing operations against the coalition. To do this, many junior officers and senior noncommissioned officers were tasked with building relationships with the village elders and tribal
leadership. They were required to study the tribal culture and Pashto language. It was important
they build a relationship with these people, and they did so through a thorough understanding of
cross-cultural communication. The global business world is no different; it is important for
leaders to understand cross-cultural communication if they want their global ventures to be
successful.
IT-Business Translation. In business and IT in particular, leaders find themselves
oftentimes having to communicate complicated technical information to other business
executives who do not have a background or experience in IT. Trying to speak data, systems,
firewalls, cloud computing, servers, routers, and more to the Chief Financial Officer or the
Human Resources Director can be challenging; however, it is a critical skill for any IT leader.
According to Yael Nagler, being able to effectively deliver the right message, the right way, is
one of the clearest ways to reduce risk and strengthen the value that cybersecurity brings to the
whole organization (2019). If they communicate complex technical issues effectively, they will
be able to advocate for resources, communicate problems, support their teams, and more.
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
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In my capstone, I have included two artifacts that illustrate the point I am making. First,
the artifact from the Fundamentals of Cybersecurity course is a PowerPoint slideshow describing
how the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is used to send an email. In this example,
we have a very simple task (sending an email) carried out by a complex sequence of technical
events and the presentation was aimed at explaining them to someone who had little experience
working in IT. The second artifact to illustrate this point is a technical writing document I wrote
in the Cyber Law and Ethics course giving an overview of the Federal Information Security
Management Act (FISMA) which was passed as part of the E-Government Act pf 2002. It
dictates how the federal government shall store and protect sensitive data in its control. In
Securing Business and Consumer Financial Data Now and In the Future (artifact), I outline ten
recommendations businesses should take to keep critical data safe. They are as follows:
1. Organizations should have a written security policy.
2. Information security audits should be performed, by an outside agency, on a regular
basis, with special emphasis on identifying fraudulent acts.
3. Organizations should establish a baseline vulnerability scan.
4. Organizations should monitor and report on access to any files, folders, or databases
that contain consumer financial information.
5. Organizations should notify any consumer if you believe their information has been
compromised.
6. Organizations should designate a security program coordinator.
7. Organizations should establish an employee security awareness and training program.
8. A policy of least privilege should be adopted.
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
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9. Organizations should establish policies for information processing, transmission,
storage, and disposal.
10. Organizations should have appropriate measures to detect, prevent, and respond to
attacks and intrusions.
As one can tell, many of those recommendations are very technical in nature. If the IT
leader cannot articulate the importance of the recommendations and what they mean for the
institution, they may not get the senior leader support required for implementation. Some of the
recommendations also require technical writing, such as establishing a written security policy,
notifying consumers of a breach, establishing an employee awareness program, and more.
Personal Experience: IT-Business Translation. In my job, I routinely do both tasks:
make presentations and explain complicated things to leaders who do not have an IT background
and write and submit technical papers to leadership. In doing so, they are then able to articulate
our stance more effectively and better advocate for what it is our organization is trying to
accomplish or communicate. Most recently I had to present to our senior commanders the
implications of our virtual server suite not getting upgraded due to lack of funding. I had to
translate complicated technical information and communicate what it meant for them and the
implications of this action on our network and how it affected the overall mission. Ensuring they
understood these concepts was critical in securing the funding required to replace the aging
equipment. I also had to author a seven-page talking paper to my leadership so they were able to
advocate to our higher headquarters for an enterprise architecture change we were proposing. IT
leaders being able to effectively communicate complex technical concepts to people that do not
work in IT is critical to the success of them, their teams, and their organizations.
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
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Conclusion: Application to Problem. Communication is critical in finding and
implementing solutions to the three challenges stated in the beginning of this paper. First,
effectively utilizing the remote work capability vastly expands the potential employees they can
hire because they are not bound by geographic area. It also provides a capability that could
increase recruitment and retention of employees. Using cross-cultural communication effectively
will enhance the relationships between companies and employees operating in different
countries, which increases the chances of business success in the global environment. Lastly, if
IT leaders cannot communicate difficult technical concepts well, their effectiveness will be
greatly diminished, and their companies will unfortunately suffer as a result. They will not be
able to speak or understand the complexities involved in securing their network environments in
the face of rising threats and potential attacks coupled with the ever-growing attack surface
through an increased reliance on apps, data storage, and connected devices.
Aside from what was mentioned above, communication occurs in everything a leader
does. From effectively listening to someone when doing conflict resolution, training someone on
how to achieve a task, developing a vision statement, or delegating a task or authority to
someone, leaders are constantly communicating. If a leader fails to communicate, or is an
ineffective communicator, their leadership potential will be severely limited. A leader’s
effectiveness is directly correlated to their ability to communicate well to their superiors,
subordinates, and company members, both domestically and globally.
The Leader of the Future Must Be Observant and Intentional
Overview. The leader of the future must be observant and intentional. The previous two
sections on leader versatility and communication dealt with leading outside of themselves, with
and for others. This section, however, deals with the leader practicing some introspect and deals
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
17
with leading themselves through constant observation and intentionality within their leadership.
Colonel Eric Kail, a United States Military Academy professor says that gaining wisdom requires
reflection. He also states that reflection is an effort to understand how the events of our life shape
the way in which we see the world, ourselves, and others and is essential for any leader (2012).
Effective leaders within IT and business will continually observe the environment they are in and
adapt and respond accordingly and they will be intentional in all aspects of their leadership.
Leaders Observe the Environment. In business and IT in 2021 and beyond, things
change quickly. The environment leaders are operating in is very complex and dynamic. The
problems an IT leader is working through today could be a completely different set of problems
they are working through tomorrow. A single attack or breach can cause months of time and
millions of dollars lost for the company. A single patch can break operability of critical software.
A cooling failure threatens to overheat critical infrastructure. For business leaders, a merger
could mean you are instantly working in a global business. Stock may be tanking. The COVID19 pandemic could be causing supply chain problems which affect supply. Change is everywhere
and it happens quickly. Geopolitical issues in other countries can instantly affect the bottom line
of the company. Effective leaders are always observing the operating environment they find
themselves in and respond accordingly; they are proactive, not reactive. Being versatile is
necessary as is being an effective communicator, but if the leader does not have good intelligence
of what is going on around them, they will lack awareness of the problems and issues that need
their attention, rendering their leadership largely ineffective. Proactive leadership is about
identifying areas of risk for your team and working on measures that will reduce their impact or
stop the problems from happening altogether (Brearley, 2021). In the military, the difference
between being proactive and reactive can be the difference between life and death. While the
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
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same is rarely true in business, the results can be catastrophic if leaders are not proactive and are
not constantly observing their operating environments for emerging threats.
Leaders are Intentional. To be an effective leader, we must be intentional with
everything we do. 3 x 5 Leadership says “intentional leaders who are deliberate in their
approaches take ownership for their responsibilities and their team, are thoughtful in how they
act and why, are careful in their decisions, remain considerate of the impacts they have, and
ultimately are incredibly caring for those placed in their charge. (8 Ways to Be an Intentional
Leader, 2021)” Being intentional as a leader means we are thinking about everything we do and
not acting on a whim. We are thinking about the second, third, and fourth hand effects of our
actions and decisions. We think about whether there is a better way to accomplish the task at
hand. Leaders are also intentional in their own leadership development journey; they reflect and
are thoughtful about where their own shortcomings are and which areas they must be proficient
to round out their versatility. Intentional leaders are also always learning; the best leaders see
themselves as students who still have much to learn because the operating environment is always
changing as mentioned previously.
Conclusion: Application to Problem. While not directly applicable to solving the stated
challenges in a practical way, when leaders are always observing the operating environment and
are intentional in their leadership, they will be prepared and ready for any problem that comes
their way regardless of if they are on the human side or the systems side. Observant and
intentional leaders have a solid framework in place to identify (through observation) and respond
to (through intentionality) to any problem or threat that emerges in within their area of
responsibility.
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
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Conclusion
Leadership is hard. When I was young and early in my career, I was only interested in
moving up the chain of command; I wanted more rank, more money, more respect, more people
under me, etc. At the time, I did not understand the enormous weight the responsibility of
leadership entailed. It is a responsibility to those serving under me, a responsibility to those
serving over me, a responsibility to the organization, and a responsibility to the American public.
It is hard and exhausting at times. Some days I wish I wasn’t in a leadership position. But it is
worth it. Developing others and bringing up the next generation of leaders makes it all worth it to
me. I live for subordinate successes. Seeing my team be successful in their professional lives and
thinking that I play a small role in it makes the hard days and the struggles worth it, all the time.
When the IT and business leaders of the future are versatile, communicative, and
reflective/thoughtful, they will be able to navigate the challenges of a skilled workforce shortage,
increased globalization, and a rising number of cyber attacks.
BUSINESS AND IT LEADERSHIP
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References
8 Ways to Be an Intentional Leader. (2021, May 3). 3×5 Leadership.
https://3x5leadership.com/2021/05/03/8-ways-to-be-an-intentional-leader/
Brearley, B. (2021, July 9). Why Leaders Should Strive For Proactive Leadership. Thoughtful
Leader. https://www.thoughtfulleader.com/proactive-leadership/
Business Research Company. (2021, March 31). Financial Services Global Market Report 2021:
COVID-19 Impact And Recovery To 2030. GlobeNewswire News Room.
https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2021/03/31/2202641/0/en/FinancialServices-Global-Market-Report-2021-COVID-19-Impact-And-Recovery-To-2030.html
Cybersecurity Guide. (2021, February 25). Cybersecurity in the Financial Industry.

Cybersecurity in the financial services industry


Garrett, G. (2018, December 13). Cyberattacks Skyrocketed in 2018. Are You Ready for
2019? Industry Week. https://www.industryweek.com/technology-andiiot/article/22026828/cyberattacks-skyrocketed-in-2018-are-you-ready-for-2019
Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1993). Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing
Human Resources (6th ed.). Prentice Hall.
Johnson, W. (2019). Leading remotely. MIT Sloan Management Review, 61(1), 1-4. Retrieved
from http://library.friends.edu:2182/login?url=https://library.friends.edu:2248/scholarlyjournals/leading-remotely/docview/2335159873/se-2?accountid=34741
Kail, E. (2012, March 9). Leadership character: The role of reflection. Washington Post.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/guest-insights/post/leadership-character-the-roleof-reflection/2011/04/04/gIQAdJOr1R_blog.html
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Kaiser, R. (2021, August 30). The Best Leaders Are Versatile Ones. Harvard Business Review.
https://hbr.org/2020/03/the-best-leaders-are-versatile-ones
Luftman, J., & Kempaiah, R. M. (2007). The IS organization of the future: The IT talent
challeng…
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