FSU Nursing Home Patients With Hypertension Discussion


Respond to discussion below using current APA edition and at least 2 references within 4 years or less. Must be at least 150 words or less. 
Nursing Home Patients With Hypertension
Briefly describe the therapeutic actions of drugs affecting blood pressure (diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, CCB, sympathetic nervous system drugs)
          The main objective of antihypertensive medication is reducing blood pressure to less than 140/90 mm Hg as it is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and renal morbidity and mortality (Arcangelo et al., 2021). The therapeutic actions of drugs affecting blood pressure include the following. Diuretics are drugs that lower blood pressure by boosting the output of urine, which causes the body to retain less water. It lessens the amount of blood the heart must pump, reducing the work required and lowering blood pressure. The diuretics used to treat high blood pressure are thiazides. The side effects of diuretics include low sodium, potassium, and water level that can lead to fatigue, muscle cramps, and other symptoms (Mann, 2021). Gout attacks and reversible erectile dysfunction are possible additional symptoms.
          Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors prevent the blood substance angiotensin II, a hormone that induces blood vessel constriction and raises blood pressure, from being produced. ACE inhibitors enable blood arteries to expand, lowering blood pressure and increasing cardiac output by inhibiting angiotensin II production. Benazepril, captopril, enalapril, fosinopril, lisinopril, moexipril, perindopril, quinapril, ramipril, and trandolapril are examples of ACE inhibitors (Mann, 2021). Less frequent adverse effects of ACE inhibitors include dry mouth, nausea, rash, muscle soreness, and, rarely, kidney malfunction and increased blood potassium. A prolonged dry cough caused by ACE inhibitors is reversible when the drug is stopped.
          The angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) prevent angiotensin II from impacting heart and blood vessel cells. By preventing angiotensin II from acting at its receptor sites, ARBs diminish vasoconstriction and aid in lowering blood pressure. ARBs and ACE inhibitors are similar, but ARBs focus on a different area of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (Mann, 2021). Calcium channel blockers(CCB) reduce calcium entry into the smooth muscle of blood vessel walls and heart muscle. Calcium is necessary to contract muscle cells (Mann, 2021). Calcium channel blockers, therefore, cause muscle cells to relax and blood vessels to enlarge, lowering blood pressure and the force and rate of the heartbeat.
          Drugs that target the sympathetic nervous system are known as sympathetic nervous system drugs, which are in charge of controlling blood pressure. Beta-blockers, alpha-blockers, and centrally-acting medicines are some medications that impact the sympathetic nervous system. Beta-blockers lessen blood pressure and the effort placed on the heart by lowering the heart rate and contraction force. The smooth muscle in blood vessels is relaxed by alpha-blockers, which lessens vasoconstriction and enhances blood flow (Colle et al., 2007). Centrally acting substances work by interfering with the sympathetic nervous system’s control by the brain, which lowers blood pressure.
What important teaching points should be addressed for patients receiving antihypertensive drugs?
          Some crucial points that should be addressed to patients receiving antihypertensive drugs include the following. First is medical compliance, which implies that it is critical to take the medication as directed at the same time each day to keep the drug level in the body constant and ensure that it is effective in lowering blood pressure. Secondly, Patients should be taught how to test their blood pressure at home and when to notify their healthcare practitioner if the readings are persistently high or low. Regular blood pressure monitoring is vital to check the effectiveness of the medication and change the dose if necessary (Arcangelo et al., 2021). The other key point essential for patients receiving antihypertensive drugs is potential side effects. Potential side effects of antihypertensive medications include nausea, headache, dizziness, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Patients should be made aware of these possible side effects and told to contact their doctor if any occur (Arcangelo et al., 2021). Lastly, it is crucial to understand the lifestyle modification needed. For instance, Antihypertensive medications work best when used with good lifestyle choices like quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, getting regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, and limiting alcohol use.

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