Draw the schematic diagram, solve problem

DescriptionModule 6 – Layout Decisions (Lesson: Assembly-Line Balancing)
Read pages 393-396
Developing a precedence diagram for an assembly line
Cycle time = operation time to complete customer demands.
Formula:
Cycle time = Production time available per day
Units required per day
Theoretical minimum number of workstations = Sum of all Tasks time
Cycle time
Example 1:
Problem 1: Boeing wants to develop a precedence diagram for an electrostatic wing component
that requires a total assembly time of 66 minutes. The staff gather tasks, assembly times, and
sequence requirements for the component as shown below. Boeing determines that there are 480
productive minutes of work available per day. The production schedule requires that 40 units of the
wing component be completed as output from the assembly line each day. It now wants to group
the tasks into workstations.
Task
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
Assembly Time (minutes)
10
11
5
4
12
3
7
11
3
66
Immediate Predecessor
A
B
B
A
C, D
F
E
G, H
Question 1. DRAW THE PRECEDENCE DIAGRAM.
Question 2. Compute the cycle time.
Cycle time = Production time available per day
Units required per day
= 480 minutes
40 units
= 12 minutes/unit
Question 3. Compute the theoretical minimum number of workstations.
Theoretical minimum number of workstations = Total task time
Cycle time
= 66
12
= 5.5 or 6 stations
The division of workstations is shown in Figure 9.14, page 396,
Question 4. Determine the line efficiency (page 397).
Efficiency =
Total task times
(Actual number of workstations) x (Largest assigned cycle time)
Efficiency =
66 minutes
(6 stations) x (12 minutes)
= 66 x 100
72
= 91.7%
NOTE: Opening a seventh workstation, for whatever reason,
would decrease the efficiency of the balance to 78.6%
(assuming that at least one of the workstations
still required 12 minutes):
Efficiency =
66 minutes
(7 stations) x (12 minutes)
= 66 x 100
84
= 78.6%
Example 2:
Problem 2: Yanbu appliances wants to establish an assembly line to manufacture its new product,
the Mini-Me Microwave Oven. The assembly line will operate 7.5 hours per day. The goal is to
produce 50 ovens per day. The tasks, task time, and immediate predecessor for producing 1 oven
are as follows.
Task
A
B
C
D
E
F
Assembly Time (minutes)
5
4
4
4
4
4
Immediate Predecessor
A
A, B
B, C
C
D, E
Question 1. DRAW THE PRECEDENCE DIAGRAM.
Question 2. Compute the cycle time.
Question 3. Compute the theoretical minimum number of workstations.
Question 4. Determine the line efficiency.
Module 6 – Layout Decisions (Lesson: Work Cell)
Read Figure 9.10 – Improving Layouts by Moving to the Work Cell Concept on page 389
and page 390.
Staffing and Balancing Work Cells
Takt time = pace of production to meet customer demands.
Cycle time = operation time to complete customer demands.
Lead time = time from customer’s request of orders up to delivery.
Formula:
Takt time = Total work time available/Units required
Workers required or Staff needed = Total operation time required/Takt time
Example 1:
Problem 1: Stephen Hall’s company in Dayton makes auto mirrors. The major customer is the
Honda plant nearby. Honda expects 600 mirrors delivered daily, and the work cell producing the
mirrors is scheduled for 8 hours. Hall wants to determine the takt time and the number of workers
required.
Solution 1:
Takt time = 8 hours x 60 minutes x 60 seconds = 28,800 seconds = 48 seconds
1 hour
1 minute
600 units
unit
THIS MEANS: Customer requirement is 1 mirror every 48 seconds.
Example 2:
In relation to problem 1, additional data is given below. These are operations time.
Type of Operation
Assemble
Paint
Test
Label
Pack for shipping
Time required (in seconds)
50
45
10
20
15
140
Solution 2:
Workers required = Total operation time required/Takt time
= 140
48
= 2.92
THIS MEANS: To produce 1 unit every 48 seconds will require 2.92 people.
THEREFORE, with 3 workers, they can produce 617 units per day. How?
Takt time per 3 workers = 140
3
= 46.67 seconds
Takt time = Total work time available
Units required
46.67 seconds = 28,800 seconds
Units required
Units required = 28,800 seconds
46.67 seconds
= 617.09
= or 617
Problem 3
If testing time is expanded to 20 seconds, what is the staffing requirement? [Answer: 3.125
employees]
What is the Takt time if 3 workers? [Answer: 50 seconds]
What is the number of Units required if 3 workers? [Answer: 576]
What is the Takt time if 4 workers? [Answer: 37.5 seconds]
What is the number of Units required if 4 workers? [Answer: 768]

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