BIO135 MCC Biology Question


i have a lab assignment about Blood Typing i need help completing it.Blood Typing
I. Introduction
Blood is a liquid connective tissue that transports nutrients, wastes, gases, and hormones around the body. Human
blood is typed or grouped in several ways. The most popular grouping is called the ABO system in which your
blood type might be A or B or AB or O.
Red blood cells (called erythrocytes) are the principle constituents of blood. They contain the hemoglobin that
transports CO2 and O2 in an organism.
The four blood groups A, B, O and AB get their names from the characteristic antigens (or agglutinations) that are
found at the surface of the red blood cells. They exist in two types: A and B antigens.
In addition, in the blood plasma, specific antibodies circulate called agglutinates. They can be of two types: anti-A
antibodies and anti-B antibodies.

In an individual of group A blood, the red blood cells present, at their surface, the type A antigens only. The
plasma only contains anti-B antibodies
In an individual of group B blood, the red blood cells present, at their surface, the type B antigens only. The
plasma only contains anti-A antibodies.
An individual of group AB blood, simultaneously possesses both the A and B antigen on the red blood cells, but
no anti-A or anti-B antibodies in the plasma.
An individual of group O blood, does not possess A or B antigens on the red blood cells but the plasma contains
both anti-A and anti-B antibodies.
II. Purpose
Watch this video to see how blood is typed.

Testing for ABO Group – Procedure
One end of a slide is labelled Anti-A, and the
other Anti-B. A drop of Anti-A test serum is
added to the end marked Anti-A, and a drop
of Anti-B serum is added to the end marked
One drop of blood is added to each end of the
slide, and mixed well, using separate wooden
The results are read directly from the slide.
The subject is blood group A if agglutination
occurred with the Anti-A test serum; group B
if agglutination occurred with the Anti-B test
serum; group AB if agglutination occurred
with both test serums, and O if there was no
agglutination in either case. In the sample to
the right, we conclude the subject has type
A blood.
You inherited your blood type from your parents. Your blood type is based on antigens found on your red
blood cells named A or B and antibodies found in your plasma called a or b. See Table 1 for the antigenantibody make-up of different blood types.
Table 1
Blood type
A and B
neither a nor b
neither A nor B
both a and b
A. When would clumping (or agglutination occur?
When someone needs a blood transfusion, he/she will usually be given his/her own type. Sometimes, however, it
might be necessary to use a compatible type. Not all blood types are compatible with each other.
Fill in Table 2 to indicate compatible donors and recipients.
Table 2: Recipient / Donor Transfusion Compatibility
Blood Types
Donates to
Receives from
What blood type is called the universal donor?
What blood type is called the universal recipient?
Based on antigen-antibody reactions, can you explain why a particular type is the universal donor or recipient?
Lab Topic: HIV Transmission
AIDS, a disease that some consider to be the plague of the twentieth century, is caused by a virus known as Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). HIV is an example of a retrovirus, a virus that carries its genetic information in the
form of RNA, rather than DNA. HIV is transmitted solely through blood and bodily secretions – blood, semen, and
vaginal secretions. The virus commonly enters the body through contaminated blood transfusions, by bloodcontaminated needles, and during intimate sexual contact.

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