Bio 103 study guide

DescriptionStudy Guide
Chapters 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8
May be revised based on material covered before Exam 2
Chapter 4 – Nutrition, Enzymes, and Metabolism
1)
Define the following terms: malnutrition, energy, nutrients, macronutrients,
micronutrients, essential nutrients, essential amino acids, digestion, chemical
reaction, catabolic reaction, anabolic reaction, metabolism, enzyme, active site,
substrate, activation energy, minerals, vitamins, cofactor, coenzyme,
2)
3)
Malnutrition is always associated with starvation. True/False
______ is the number one killer of children around the world and most deaths occur in
sub-Saharan Africa because ______________
What are some examples of macronutrients? What are their functions in our body?
In the United States, food access is more due to __________ (poverty or scarcity).
What should a well-balanced diet be composed of?
Animal products contain more protein per gram than carbohydrates while most plant
products contain more carbohydrates than protein. True/False
Why are macronutrients broken down by digestion?
Why are nucleic acids not considered macronutrients?
Digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids releases subunits that are
absorbed into the bloodstream. List these subunits.
How many amino acids are considered essential?
What are complete foods?
What is the purpose of the peanut butter project?
Why is peanut butter a useful treatment for malnutrition?
According to physician Mark Manary, founder of the Peanut Butter Project, “If you eat
RUTF, you don’t need to eat anything else.” True/False
Enzymes are used in catabolic but not anabolic reactions. True/False
Discuss the properties of enzymes.
Without enzymes, reactions will never occur. True/False
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How is the activation energy affected by enzymes – Do enzymes reduce, or
increase the activation energy?
Enzymes add energy to a reaction. True/False
How is an enzyme – substrate complex formed?
Discuss the ‘induced fit’ model of enzyme activity.
Enzymes are mostly protein molecules. True/False
Enzymes are changed permanently at the end of the reaction. True/False
What are the functions of micronutrients? What is “hidden hunger?”
List some examples of minerals, vitamins, cofactors, and coenzymes and their
functions
Goiter can result from a deficiency in ______.
Chapter 5 – Energy and Photosynthesis
1)
Define the following: biofuel, fossil fuel, energy, potential energy, kinetic energy,
chemical energy, heat, autotroph, heterotroph, light energy, photons, chlorophyll,
Rubisco, photosynthesis, energy, entropy, visible light, pigment, carbon fixation,
stomata
2)
Fossil fuels considered nonrenewable. Why?
3)
What is the advantage of using algae as a source of fuel?
4)
Why are the single-celled ‘pond scum’ variety of algae the most useful for
making biofuel?
5)
Apart from oil, what are algae also used for?
6)
Make sure you understand the difference between the first and second laws of
thermodynamics. Which one is also called the law of energy conservation?
7)
Use the example of a cyclist to explain the concept of energy transformation.
8)
Energy transformation is always 100% efficient. True/False
9)
Discuss the three main types of work in a cell.
10)
Is photosynthesis anabolic or catabolic?
11)
What is the organelle of photosynthesis?
12)
Define the following: stroma, grana, thylakoid, and thylakoid space.
13)
How is photosynthesis advantageous for life on Earth? What role does it play in
reducing CO2 in the environment?
14)
How can biofuel producers increase the amount of CO2 available to algae?
15)
Why are plants and algae considered “carbon neutral?”
16)
Sunlight is a type of energy called electromagnetic energy. True/False
17)
Shorter-wavelength photons have less energy than longer-wavelength photons.
True/False
18)
Wavelengths shorter than those of visible light can damage organic molecules
such as nucleic acids and proteins. True/False
19)
Why do plants appear green to us?
20)
All pigments reflect all wavelengths of light. True/False
21)
What are carotenoids and what is their function?
22)
What are the two metabolic stages of photosynthesis?
23)
Where do the two metabolic stages of photosynthesis occur? What are their
products?
24)
The most abundant protein in the world is _______. What is its function in
photosynthesis?
25)
What products of the light reactions are used in the carbon reactions?
26)
During the carbon fixation, what is being “fixed?”
27)
What are the sources of the ingredients of photosynthesis in plants?
28)
Discuss the greenhouse effect. List some greenhouse gases
29)
What causes global warming?
30)
Burning of fossil fuels has increased the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere.
True/False
31)
What are some consequences of global climate change?
32)
How can photosynthesis moderate global warming?
33)
How can global warming be reduced generally?
34)
According to calculations by scientists, the CO2 released by human activities has
increased the average temperature of the planet by about 1°C (1.8°F) since 1900.
True/False
35)
Discuss the carbon capture systems (covered in class) that are being explored by
scientists.
36)
What are some challenges facing alternative fuels?
37)
Photosynthesis provides food and O2 for almost all living organisms. True/False
38)
Sugars also serve as the starting material for other organic compounds such as
cellulose. True/False
39)
Plants store excess sugar as starch in roots tubers and fruits. True/False
Chapter 6 – Dietary Energy and Cellular Respiration
1)
Define the following: obesity, body mass index, calorie, Calorie, NEAT,
Cellular respiration, glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, fermentation,
2)
Why is obesity considered America’s #1 health crisis?
3)
Since 1960, the percentage of obese and extremely obese adults has grown.
True/False
4)
Fundamentally, obesity is a problem of energy imbalance: taking in much more
energy than we expend in our activities, over time. True/False
5)
Food is a source of chemical energy. True/False
6)
What is the difference between “calorie” and “Calorie?” Which one will you find
on most food labels?
7)
Each gram of fat stores _____ Calories while each gram of protein or
carbohydrate stores _____ Calories.
8)
There are three main ways our body expends energy. List them.
9)
What are the factors that determine the amount of energy required to meet our
daily needs?
10)
What is NEAT? What are the advantages of NEAT?
11)
There is one problem associated with the studies conducted by some researchers
regarding the effectiveness of NEAT in managing weight. What is that problem?
12)
What is the energy currency in cells?
13)
ATP is a nucleotide. What are its components?
14)
The energy in ATP is stored in the bonds between its phosphate groups and
energy is released when these bonds are broken. True/False
15)
List some functions of ATP in a cell.
16)
What is the organelle of cellular respiration?
17)
What is the difference between breathing and aerobic cellular respiration?
18)
What is the function of the coenzyme NAD+ in cellular respiration? What does it
become when it accepts electrons?
19)
What is misleading about the following statement? “Plant cells perform
photosynthesis, and animal cells perform cellular respiration.”
20)
What are the three stages of cellular respiration and where do they occur?
21)
What are the products of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron
transport chain?
22)
What stage of cellular respiration produces FADH2 and what is its function?
23)
What is the final electron acceptor in cellular respiration? What is it converted to?
24)
Make sure you know the number of ATP molecules produced form the stages of
cellular respiration as well as the total yield.
25)
Which step of cellular respiration produces most of the ATP molecules?
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How do cyanide, oligomycin, and carbon monoxide affect cellular respiration?
Why do mitochondria in brown fat produce heat?
Brown fat is found only in babies. True/False
In cold environments, the brown fat of lean people is less active than in
overweight people. True/False
Distinguish between cellular respiration and fermentation. Which one is more
efficient?
The ATP produced during fermentation is from glycolysis. True/False
NAD+ is regenerated during fermentation. True/False
Distinguish between alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation. Where do
these processes take place (examples of organisms or cells)?
CO2 is produced in both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.
True/False.
Both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation operate anaerobically.
True/False.
A child is born with a rare disease in which mitochondria are missing from
skeletal muscle cells. However, the muscles still function. Physicians find that
a) the muscles contain large amounts of lactate following even mild physical
exercise
b) the muscles contain large amounts of carbon dioxide following even mild
physical exercise
c) the muscle require extremely high levels of oxygen to function
d) the muscles cannot split glucose to pyruvate.
e) the muscles require extremely large amounts of carbon dioxide to function
Why do cells carry out fermentation if there is no more ATP produced?
Distinguish between short-term energy storage and long-term energy storage.
Include the storage molecules involved (glycogen or fat).
Photosynthesis and respiration form a continuous cycle. What does this mean?
In the presence of oxygen, humans use ____ for ATP production, and plants use
____ for ATP production from stored sugars
a) Aerobic respiration, photosynthesis
b) Fermentation, aerobic respiration
c) Aerobic respiration, aerobic respiration
d) Fermentation, glycolysis
During aerobic respiration, how does NADH give up electrons to regenerate
NAD+
a) by giving electrons directly to O2
b) by giving electrons to pyruvate
c) by giving electrons to another NAD+
d) by giving electrons to the electron transport chain
Chapter 7 – DNA Structure and Replication
1)
Definitions: DNA, chromosome, nucleotide, DNA profile, DNA replication,
helicase, primer, DNA polymerase, PCR, complementary, genome, STRs, gel
electrophoresis, genotype, phenotype, CODIS
2)
How many chromosomes does a human cell contain?
3)
If the nucleus is so small, how do the chromosomes all fit?
4)
A human chromosome is composed of DNA only. True/False
5)
What are sex chromosomes? How many sex chromosomes are typically found in
human males and females and which ones are they?
6)
All the cells in a multicellular organism have the same genome. True/False
7)
Describe the structure of DNA. What forms the “backbone” and what forms the
“rungs?”
8)
What is the complementary base pairing rule?
9)
What two functions of DNA comprise the central dogma of molecular biology?
10)
The specific sequence of nucleotides along a strand of DNA is unique to each
individual. True/false
11)
Each chromosome contains
a) DNA only
b) Proteins only
c) DNA and proteins
d) The same number of genes
12)
Which of the following is FALSE?
a) The 46 chromosomes in a typical human cell are found in the nucleus
b) Each cell in your body has a different genome since they have different
functions
c) A human female has a pair of X chromosomes
d) A nucleotide is composed of a base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
13)
Both DNA replication and transcription depend on base-pairing properties of
nucleotides. True/False
14)
Describe the semiconservative model of DNA replication.
15)
What are the roles of the enzymes, helicase and DNA polymerase in DNA
replication?
16)
The process of DNA replication is fast and 100% accurate. True/False
17)
What is the purpose of PCR?
18)
In PCR, what ingredients do scientists put in the test tube?
19)
During PCR the DNA is first heated and then cooled. Why?
20)
What is the purpose of the primer in PCR?
21)
What are the similarities and differences between PCR and DNA replication?
22)
What are short tandem repeats (STRs). Why are they used to distinguish
individuals from one another?
23)
How is DNA profiling done? Include PCR and gel electrophoresis in your
discussion.
24)
What is a molecular “fingerprint?”
25)
In a paternity test, how many of the child’s STR bands should match bands from
the father
a) All
b) One half
26)
Why is it important to use multiple STR regions in forensic science?
27)
Why would it be better to use DNA evidence rather than just bites marks or hair?
Chapter 8 – Genes to Proteins
1)
Define the following: amino acids, spidroin, gene, gene expression, regulatory
sequence, coding sequence, transcription, translation, mRNA, RNA polymerase,
ribosome, codon, tRNA, anticodon, genetic code, transgenic, recombinant gene, genetic
engineering, vector, GMO, gene therapy.
2)
What are some properties and advantages of spider silk?
3)
List some applications of spider silk.
4)
Spidroin is longer than the average animal protein. True/False
5)
Polypeptide chain folds into a 3-D protein based on the sequence of amino acids
and this determines the shape and function of the protein. True/False
6)
How do the amino acids, alanine and glycine, in spidroin contribute to its
toughness and strength?
7)
What role do hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids play in the structure of
spidroin?
8)
Discuss the difference between the coding sequence and the regulatory sequence
of a gene.
9)
What were the advantages and disadvantages of nylon?
10)
Where do proteins come from? What is gene expression? What are the steps
involved in gene expression and where do they occur?
11)
What is mRNA and where is it synthesized in eukaryotic cells?
12)
What is the role of RNA polymerase in transcription?
13)
In the cytoplasm, the mRNA attaches to the _________ upon which translation
occurs.
14)
Why is a codon called a “word?”
15)
How are amino acids delivered to the ribosome?
16)
How is the tRNA like an “interpreter?”
17)
An anticodon is complementary to the codon. True/False
18)
How many bases does a codon or anticodon contain?
19)
mRNA and tRNAs can be used only once. True/False
20)
Which statement about DNA or RNA is true?
a. DNA is completely replicated but only partially transcribed.
b. DNA is partially replicated but completely transcribed.
c. RNA is completely replicated but only partially translated.
d. DNA is completely replicated and completely translated.
e. DNA is partially replicated but completely translated.
21)
What is the universal code? Why is it said to be universal, redundant but not
ambiguous?
22)
What are the functions of the start codon and stop codons?
23)
An organism’s genetic information is stored within the sequence of ___________.
This information is transcribed into a sequence of ____________ which are then
translated into a sequence of ___________.
1
DNA bases, amino acids, RNA bases
2
RNA bases, DNA bases, amino acids
3
Amino acids, DNA bases, RNA bases
4
DNA bases, RNA bases, amino acids
24)
Only spiders have been genetically engineered to produce spider silk. True/False
25)
Describe the process of genetic engineering of spider silk using yeast. Why is a
vector used in this process?
26)
What are the advantages of using yeast in the production of spider silk?
27)
List some examples in which the field of agriculture has benefited from genetic
engineering?
28)
List some examples in which the field of medicine has benefited from genetic
engineering?
29)
What are some of the challenges facing genetic engineering?

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