Arizona State University Hydraulics Lab Report

Description

some important points you should not forget to addCalculate efficiency of the flowmeter ((actual/ theoretical)*100)
Percent yield of how well the flowmeter works
Don’t calculate pipe angles and pipe fittings
Headloss vs flow rate ( three lines of flow regime)
Pipe roughness vs head-loss (small vs reg)
(Reg vs rough ) Pipe roughness vs head-loss
.0015 roughness factor for smooth pipe
Pipe size vs head loss
e (epsilon) = .0015
Actual head loss▵h =(p1 – p2)ρg p= 997g=9.81
u=q/a
Q flow rate, a in notes, L=1 mCHE 352
Hydraulics
Broad Objectives: To design an experiment or experiments that apply principles of fluid
mechanics to flow through a variety of pipes and fixtures; to utilize computer data acquisition in
running the experiment(s).
Background: In your fluid mechanics course, you studied the theory of how fluids that flow through
piping systems (including pipes/tubes, valves, and fixtures – elbows, unions, tees, etc.) undergo
pressure loss due to friction (where does the lost mechanical energy go?). In this experiment,
you will be trying to determine what factors affect (and to what degree) pressure loss in a piping
system. Furthermore, you will be focusing on comparing theory learned to experimental results
obtained in the real world – do these results agree with theory and/or established predictive
models/correlations? What is the difference between theory and the real world and why does it
arise? Additionally, some focus will be given to understanding measurements (i.e., how do we
measure real world quantities?) and the accuracy/precision of measurement methods and under
what conditions these measurements are more or less accurate/precise.
Experimental Notes:

A piping network is provided that allows you to direct flow through lengths of tubing of a
variety of tube sizes (some are smooth, some are rough), and also a variety of fixtures,
along with a network of pressure ports. The ports accept pressure transducers that provide
electrical signals that are sent to a computer. The computer is equipped with software
that interprets the signals as pressure readings. See Appendix A below for a diagram and
labels of the apparatus.

Ideally, at least 4-5 flow rates will be utilized for each test – you will be selecting these flow
rates! When deciding, keep in mind the three main flow regimes – laminar, transitional,
and turbulent flow regimes. Maximum possible flow rate is ~0.7 L/s (be sure to ask Fred
about this!).
o
Note: it may be very difficult to get flow rates in the laminar region – if you aren’t
able to get good data for this, just get data for transitional/turbulent flow.
o
Important question to think about: should you use the same 4-5 flow rates for all
different pipe sizes?
o
You must come to lab knowing what flow rate (for each sized pipe) corresponds to
each flow regime transition (e.g., laminar → transitional).

Part of your experiment will be to calibrate your digital flow rate measurement on the
computer to determine its accuracy. For this you will be utilizing a graduated cylinder and
a stopwatch. Don’t just do this at one flow rate – why??

In this lab you will need to compare hydraulic properties for different:
o
o
Pipe diameters (at least 4)

Do not use the smallest pipe diameter; you will likely blow the hose!

Be sure to compare the smooth pipes to the rough pipe!
Pipe angles (at least 2) (You can ignore this for individual memos)
1
CHE 352

You will also need to analyze and determine the most effective operating ranges of several
pressure-based flow measuring devices (listed below) and compare/contrast the
accuracy/precision to the other methods of measuring flow rate – 1) digital flow reading
(how do you think this is actually being measured?) and 2) graduated cylinder/stopwatch
method.
o

1) Pipe orifice meter, 2) Venturi meter and 3) pitot (pronounced PEE-toh) tube
There is normally enough time in this experiment to conduct enough trials (3 total
REPLICATES) for some statistics.
Minimum Analysis that you must present in your report:

Discuss your calibration process and analyze the precision/accuracy of the computerbased flow meter.

Analyze the impact of how factors such as flow rate, flow regime, pipe size, pipe
roughness, pipe angles and pipe fittings affect the head loss (i.e., pressure drop) caused
by friction.

Importantly, results should be compared to theoretical model(s) to determine the
effectiveness of predicting using these model(s). This applies to two main parts
of the experiment: 1) for pipe fittings and sizes, how well does the theoretical
head loss match with your actual head loss and 2) for the pressure-based
flowmeters (venturi, orifice, pitot), how well does the calculated flow rate (based
on measured head loss) match with your actual flow rate?



Discussion and analysis of why results agree or disagree with these
correlations should be included. Discussion of the importance of flow
regime on the theoretical models and their accuracy in your results should
be included.
There are a lot of factors that will impact your results (e.g., pipe size, roughness,
angle, flow rates)! Before lab, think carefully about the most effective ways to
determine the effects of all these factors and after lab, think critically about the best
method to communicate/show your data in an efficient manner.
Make sure to analyze and discuss data reproducibility; e.g., looking at uncertainty in
measurements (“error”) and error propagation. This is especially critical when analyzing
and comparing the various methods of measuring flow rates to understand their
accuracy/precision.
2
CHE 352
Appendix A: Diagrams/Labels of Apparatus
Figure A1. Hydraulics Apparatus in the lab (SCOB190)
3
CHE 352
Figure A2. Hydraulics Apparatus schematic and labels
4
MEMORANDUM
Date:
Date assignment turned in
To:
TA Name
Drs. Acharya, Machas, CHE352
From:
Your name, team #, lab section
Subject:
Short Title of the Study (not the experiment name!)
Summary
Introduction
Materials, Methods and Safety
1
Results and Discussion
Conclusions
Acknowledgements (if any)
2
References
(Start this section on a new page. You should use AMA style formatting for references,
and you MUST use in-line numbered citations in the text.)
Notation
Density (kg/m3)
Mass (kg)
Other quantity (units)
ρ
m
(use italics, symbol font if required)
3
Appendix A: (title of Appendix A)
(Each appendix begins on a new page. Continue regular page numbering. You may use
whatever appendices you feel are necessary. One appendix of each report is normally
set aside for raw data while another is for sample calculations).
4
From computer: Head 2,
Inner pipe diameters
1m distance between large pressure points
ID rough pipe: 17.00 mm = 0.01700m
Pipe Area: 2.270 *10-4 m2
Q = 2.464*10-4 m3/s
ID smooth pipe: 17.25mm = 0.01725m
Pipe Area: 2.337*10-4
Q = 2.500*10-4 m3/s
ID small pipe:10.80mm = 0.01080m
Pipe Area: 9.161*10-5
Q = 1.565*10-4 m3/s
Roughness factor for a steel pipe: 0.0015mm (absolute roughness)
Reynolds Number:

● Where is the molecular viscosity (1.15*10-3 N*s/m2)
● Where is density (999 kg/m3 at 15oC)
Turbulent Flow: Re > 4000
In our case, flow rates greater than 0.25 L/s (rough: 0.2464 L/s, smooth: 0.2500 L/s,
small: 0.1565L/s)
Transition: 4000 > Re > 2000
In our case, flow rates between 0.125 L/s and 0.1565 L/s (the smallest turbulent value
and the largest laminar value)
Laminar: 2000 > Re
In our case, flow rates lower than 0.0783 L/s (rough: 0.1232L/s, smooth: 0.1250L/s,
small: 0.0783L/s)
=
For a circular pipe flowing full, the head loss due to friction is calculated as:
4 2 2
ℎ = 2 = 2
Laminar flow at low velocities where ℎ
Turbulent flow at higher velocities where ℎ
L=1m
Flow rates we will use:
Large Rough Pipe
Turbulent: 0.40 L/s
Transition: 0.14 L/s
Laminar: 0.07 L/s
Large Smooth Pipe:
Turbulent: 0.40 L/s
Transition: 0.14 L/s
Laminar: 0.07 L/s
Small Pipe:
Turbulent: 0.40 L/s
Transition: 0.14 L/s
Laminar: 0.07 L/s
Calibration
At Flowmeter = 0.41(Turbulent)
Trial-1
FlowmeterL/s
0.41
Cylinder L/s
0.338
Trial-2
Trial-3
Trial-4
Trial-5
0.338
0.330
0.338
0.335
Trial-2
Trial-3
Trial-4
Trial-5
0.142
0.145
0.138
0.142
Avg = 0.336 L/s
At Flowmeter =0.1(Transitional)
Trial-1
FlowmeterL/s
0.141
Cylinder L/s
0.141
Avg =0.142 L/S
At Flowmeter = (Laminar)
Trial-1
Trial-2
Trial-3
Trial-4
Trial-5
0.074
0.069
0.072
0.074
Trial-1
Trial-2
Trial-3
Trial-4
Trial-5
Flowmeter
L/s
0.15
0.14
Cylinder L/s
.153
0.151
0.155
0.151
0.150
Trial-1
Trial-2
Trial-3
Trial-4
Trial-5
Flowmeter
L/s
0.51
0.53
0.54
0.53
0.54
Cylinder
.437
.437
.436
.447
0.452
FlowmeterL/s
0.00
Cylinder L/s
0.0699
Average = 0.0718
@ 2nd Transitional Flow
Avg = 0.152 L/s
@ 2nd Turbulent Flow
Avg = 0.442 L/s
Technical Memo
Motivation:
Technical memos are a way to concisely share important information about a project with
specific people in an organization. Memos are often used to facilitate streamlined
communications within an organization and it is standard practice for a business to save
all written memos for decades. Furthermore, since technical memos must be brief, you
should focus on using an ‘economy of words and ideas’. That is, state only what is
critical to the project and what needs to be said and do not add ‘fluff’! However, this does
not mean that you can leave out required analysis or components – you must still
incorporate all these elements, you just need to be efficient with your presentation. These
assignments will help you to become proficient in writing technical memos. It’s easy to
be concise and it’s easy to be detailed but it is very difficult to be both concise and
detailed at the same time. This is one of the most important communication skills you
can learn as an engineer. This skill will be used often in industry including memos, emails, presentations, etc. and it is vital that you practice this skill.
Audience:
Assume that your boss has a B.S. in chemical engineering and has been in a
management position within the company for the last 15 years. As such, your boss is
familiar with the basic chemical engineering concepts but may have forgotten the details
involved in specific phenomena and calculations.
Style:
Technical memos are often ~8-14 pages in length (double spaced, including figures), plus
references/appendices (be aware that depending on the experiment, this may be lower
or higher as some experiments necessitate more figures and/or discussion which take up
more space). Memos are typically arranged so that the most important information is
presented first. The first paragraph (summary) should give the most important information
because, in the real world, some memo readers (not including your TAs or Instructor) will
not read the entire document. The rest of the body of the memo should answer questions
the reader may have developed when reading the first paragraph. Relevant raw data
(and supplementary analysis) and calculations should be included as an appendix at the
end of the memo
Planning a Memo:
Consider the following questions before beginning to write your Technical Memo:
1. Who is my audience? Write in such a way that your audience will understand the
content of the memo. You should also write so that a future audience will
understand the situation and the information being conveyed.
2. What is my objective or purpose for writing the memo?
1
3. What is the scope? (i.e. What information do I need to communicate to my
audience?)
4. Which information is essential, which is good to know, which is “extra”?
5. How should the memo be organized? Think about a logical way to arrange the
information. Section headers, formatting, figures, and tables are a used to bring
attention to important pieces of information.
1. Summary



You should start this on the same page as your memo heading.
This is the first paragraph of the Memo and also the most important.
A well-prepared summary should allow your readers to identify the contents of the
memo quickly and accurately. Focus on the underlying take home message and
do not mince words. As always, be quantitative and use numbers.
2. Introduction

It is important to convey the purpose and objectives of the experiment/project and
summarize the basic approach to the problem. Briefly outline relevant background
and discuss important assumptions made. Remember, an introduction should
provide background theory and motivate the purpose of the experiment.

The required elements covered in the technical memo introduction are the same
as those in the full technical report – however, excess theory (e.g., complicated or
supplementary equations and derivatives) can be put into an appendix and
referenced in the introduction.

As a main purpose of a technical memo is to inform about the implications of an
experiment, significant effort should go into providing real world details and
effects.
3. Materials, Methods and Safety

You should briefly answer questions such as: o
What
was
measured?
o
How was it measured?
o
o
What variables did you change and to what levels? Why did you change
these variables and choose these levels?
What are the specific safety concerns of experiment and how were they
addressed?
2

Keep procedural details to as few as possible while still allowing the reader to fully
understand and duplicate your experiment.

Provide an apparatus schematic/figure. For the technical memo, you can utilize
a picture (or multiple pictures) taken in lab but it must be clearly labelled with all
details! You can also create the schematic on your own, similar to the full technical
report.
4. Results and Discussion



Combine these sections to conserve space.
Discuss the impact of your findings as you report them (key difference
from full tech reports!). This section should be used to connect your
data analysis to your conclusions. You should elaborate on key ideas
as needed. Use appropriate tables and figures to communicate key
ideas.
Not all data has to be presented within the body of the memo; only the
most important/relevant. Supplementary data/figures/tables should be
placed in the appendices and referenced in the main body of the memo.
o Note that results are not the raw data – the numbers you recorded from
the lab instruments – as this usually goes in the appendices. Results
are the analysis of the data!

The required elements covered in the technical memo results and
discussion sections are mostly the same as those in the full technical
report. Key differences are shown below in red:
o

Interpretation of ALL key results – focus on discussing key
trends and patterns that are present in the analysis.
Directly compare and discuss different data sets across the experiment.
Focus on how your variables relate to each other. Be quantitative!
o
Relation to literature and real-world implications – compare
results
directly
to
what
other
researchers
have
found/calculated/measured (i.e., literature) to ‘calibrate’ your
work. Be quantitative!

Comparison to literature helps ensure that your results are accurate
(e.g., other researchers have gotten similar values for efficiency of this
apparatus so it is likely that my results are relatively accurate).

A heavy focus of the discussion should be on relating your results to the
real world and what others have found. What are the implications of
your experimental results on real world operation of the apparatuses
3
and processes? This can include elements such as energy use,
efficiency, cost of operation, situational usage, recommendations, etc.

Here, there should be much less focus on theory (compared to a full
tech report) and more focus on literature results and how your results
and analyses can be utilized for real world processes (e.g., “…based on
the results presented, pumps in parallel should be utilized in situations
when XX flow rates are needed”).
o Discussion of Error/Limitations – If your results deviated from
expectations, theory, literature or simply looked weird, you need to
provide some explanation for that.

What are the potential sources of error? Did you try to account
for this error during the experiment or in your analysis? How did
this error affect your results

What are the limitations of your experiment? What aspects of
this phenomena did you not investigate and why not? What
recommendations do you have to overcome these limitations?
5. Conclusion

The conclusion for a technical memo should cover topics similar to those for the
full technical report but should generally be more concise and focus on the most
important take away points from each aspect of the experiment.

Additional focus must be given to real-world applications/implications of the
experimental analysis.
6. References
References requirements for technical memos are the same as for full-technical reports.
This should usually be on the order of 5-10 for technical memos (at least 5 required for
full reports and tech memos). Note that websites are not considered as acceptable points
of references (you can always find a more reputable and reliable source!).
7. Notation

For Technical Memos, symbols must not be defined in the text. Instead, include
the Notation section after the References section to define all symbols used.

Notation is equivalent to a “list of terms”. Use this section to define all symbols and
variables utilized in the report. Symbols cited should be listed alphabetically in the
4
order of Roman symbols, letters, subscripts and superscripts. Be sure that all
symbols are defined somewhere in the report and include units!
8. Appendices
• Appendices requirements for technical memos are the same as for full-technical
reports.
Page numbers on all pages.
SI Units.
The Système International d’Unités (SI) must be used for all dimensional quantities,
whose list is available here: https://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/units.html
5
Further discussion on report content and writing based
on TA comments over the years

The point of a Lab Report is not to prove you did the experiment, but to convince the
reader that you either learned or were able to verify something about the theory, models,
and empirical approaches used by ChEs – how empirical approaches can be justified, or
how theory or theoretical predictions can be measured and verified or used to find out
something new (or at least new to the author).

The audience for full technical reports is technically trained but not necessarily in
chemical engineering. Especially when writing theory/background, you should not
assume your reader has familiarity with chemical engineering theory/terminology; you
should assume they understand basic algebra, calculus, and college chemistry/physics.

There will rarely be a reason for you to use bullets/numbering within a report. You need
to write in paragraphs – succinctly, but with enough detail that the reader can follow easily
(not like textbooks you may have encountered that require 15 minutes to decipher a single
paragraph!).

Your analysis must be explicitly described in your pre-lab before you set foot in the lab for
an experiment. You will not just ‘use an equation;’ you will need to understand all
equations and how you will use them. Before setting foot in the lab, you will need to know
how you will pre-analyze your raw data before inserting into analysis software. Before you
set foot in the lab, you will need to have an explicit plan for how you will handle error
analysis (Error propagation based on precision? Statistical measures of reproducibility?).

A note about tables vs. plots: Normally, plots have more impact than tables. As a rule, if
you have the choice of whether to present data in a table or in a plot, you are better off
using a plot. Tables are good for data that doesn’t show a discernable pattern or for data
representing a collection of lots of information with lots of different units. There is
essentially no good reason to include BOTH a table AND a plot of the same data in the
body of a report.
6
Technical Memo Grading Sheet
Score
Points Possible
Summary
4
Must be a clear and concise summary of the scope of the study, ~150 words max.
Should include: 1) background/motivation of experiment, 2) summary of most important
results (focus on quantitative outcomes), 3) a concise conclusion/recommendations.
Comments
12
Introduction must include: 1) clear objectives/purpose/scope of the study, 2) adequate
motivation and justification for the experiment (i.e., “Why should the reader care?”), 3)
adequate technical background and relevant theory (e.g., equations) so an engineer
(non-chemical engineer) can understand experiment/results, 4) describe any
assumptions and hypotheses made.
10
Must include: 1) concise description of all materials/chemicals, hardware, software, etc.
and labelled schematics (labelled pictures or computer-drawn) of any important
apparatuses, 2) concise description of experimental conditions; the reader does not
need to be able to fully replicate your work from this section but a brief description of setup and procedure used should be provided, 3) identification of all potential dangers of
experiment and detailed discussion of specific safety methods utilized to avoid/mitigate
risk. Be concise!
10
R&D must include: 1) the most important outcomes of analyzed results (not just raw
data!), 2) plots/tables/figures to best show results, 3) logical organization to support or
refute hypotheses and/or fulfill objectives of study, 4) explanation of what is being
shown in plots/figures
6
R&D must be: 1) technically correct/free of mathematical errors, 2) presented with
appropriate sigfigs, 3) all needed technical analysis has been completed
10
R&D must include: 1) interpretation of results such as key trends/patterns in the data, 2)
comparison of different data sets across experiment (e.g., “How do my results when
using polymer X compare to my results when using polymer Y?”). Be quantitative (use
numbers! in your comparisons and discussions!)
10
R&D must provide: 1) relation to literature (i.e., “Do my results agree or disagree with
what researchers/engineers/industry has found to be true? How so and why?”), 2)
discussion of why these results are important and/or how they can be utilized in the real
world. A heavy focus should be on application/implication of these results.
6
R&D must include: 1) fully identified, analyzed and discussed sources of error, 2) error
bars/analysis in all figures/tables, when applicable, and 3) full discussion of
error/limitations in the experiment
3
Conclusion must include: 1) concise summary of key points and findings from the data
collected and analyzed, 2) recommendations for future studies/improvements of
experiment. The conclusion should sum up what was learned in the experiment and
focus on main discussion points – should be one to two paragraphs, max.
3
References must include: 1) at least five (5) reputable and properly formatted
references with in-text citations.
5
Appendices must include: 1) raw, experimental data, 2) sample calculations and
mathematical derivations (do NOT leave out steps!), 3) standards and calibrations
used. Appendices should be referenced in the text, where appropriate. Also all symbols
should be defined in the “notation” section.
6
Tables & figures must: 1) be formatted correctly (e.g., axes, symbols, etc. appropriately
labeled with correct units), 2) be well-designed, easy to read and the best representation
of the data, 3) not have any extra information, gridlines, backgrounds or features.
3
Tables & figures must: 1) have appropriate, detailed captions, 2) be appropriately
referenced in the text
7
The memo must: 1) contain no spelling or grammatical errors, 2) use professional,
technical language, 3) be concise (space is at a premium in a memo; was it dedicated
to the most important findings or did it ramble/repeat? )
5
The memo text, appendices and document
requirements/guidelines and look professional.
Introduction
Materials, Methods & Safety
Results & Discussion (R&D)
Conclusion
References and Appendices
Tables & Figures
Overall Effectiveness & Professionalism
TOTAL
100
must:
1)
follow all
formatting
Turbulent Head
Orifice
Venturi
Pitot static tube
p1
0.06
0.11
0.12
p2
-0.01
-0.16
0.22
Rough Pipe
Smooth pipe(big)
smooth pipe(small)
2.67
1.68
2.43
1.67
1.49
1.2
Transitional
c
Venturi
Pitot static tube
p1
-0.47
-0.44
-0.43
p2
-0.46
-0.48
-0.37
Rough Pipe
Smooth pipe(big)
smooth pipe(small)
0.76
0.48
0.57
0.61
0.44
0.29
Laminar
Orifice
Venturi
Pitot static tube
p1
-0.04
-0.14
-0.21
p2
-0.07
-0.18
-0.06
Rough Pipe
Smooth pipe(big)
smooth pipe(small)
0.95
0.77
0.69
0.94
0.76
0.6
flow rate 0.338 (Cylinder)
flow 0.141
Turbulent (2)
Transitional (2)
p1
0.47
0.56
0.58
p2
0.36
0.1
0.73
4.19
2.71
3.76
2.52
2.4
1.88
p1
-0.43
-0.41
-0.41
p2
-0.44
-0.46
-0.32
0.83
0.51
0.64
0.65
0.48
0.33
flow rate 0.54 L/s
CHE 352
Hydraulics
Broad Objectives: To design an experiment or experiments that apply principles of fluid
mechanics to flow through a variety of pipes and fixtures; to utilize computer data acquisition in
running the experiment(s).
Background: In your fluid mechanics course, you studied the theory of how fluids that flow through
piping systems (including pipes/tubes, valves, and fixtures – elbows, unions, tees, etc.) undergo
pressure loss due to friction (where does the lost mechanical energy go?). In this experiment,
you will be trying to determine what factors affect (and to what degree) pressure loss in a piping
system. Furthermore, you will be focusing on comparing theory learned to experimental results
obtained in the real world – do these results agree with theory and/or established predictive
models/correlations? What is the difference between theory and the real world and why does it
arise? Additionally, some focus will be given to understanding measurements (i.e., how do we
measure real world quantities?) and the accuracy/precision of measurement methods and under
what conditions these measurements are more or less accurate/precise.
Experimental Notes:

A piping network is provided that allows you to direct flow through lengths of tubing of a
variety of tube sizes (some are smooth, some are rough), and also a variety of fixtures,
along with a network of pressure ports. The ports accept pressure transducers that provide
electrical signals that are sent to a computer. The computer is equipped with software
that interprets the signals as pressure readings. See Appendix A below for a diagram and
labels of the apparatus.

Ideally, at least 4-5 flow rates will be utilized for each test – you will be selecting these flow
rates! When deciding, keep in mind the three main flow regimes – laminar, transitional,
and turbulent flow regimes. Maximum possible flow rate is ~0.7 L/s (be sure to ask Fred
about this!).
o
Note: it may be very difficult to get flow rates in the laminar region – if you aren’t
able to get good data for this, just get data for transitional/turbulent flow.
o
Important question to think about: should you use the same 4-5 flow rates for all
different pipe sizes?
o
You must come to lab knowing what flow rate (for each sized pipe) corresponds to
each flow regime transition (e.g., laminar → transitional).

Part of your experiment will be to calibrate your digital flow rate measurement on the
computer to determine its accuracy. For this you will be utilizing a graduated cylinder and
a stopwatch. Don’t just do this at one flow rate – why??

In this lab you will need to compare hydraulic properties for different:
o
o
Pipe diameters (at least 4)

Do not use the smallest pipe diameter; you will likely blow the hose!

Be sure to compare the smooth pipes to the rough pipe!
Pipe angles (at least 2) (You can ignore this for individual memos)
1
CHE 352

You will also need to analyze and determine the most effective operating ranges of several
pressure-based flow measuring devices (listed below) and compare/contrast the
accuracy/precision to the other methods of measuring flow rate – 1) digital flow reading
(how do you think this is actually being measured?) and 2) graduated cylinder/stopwatch
method.
o

1) Pipe orifice meter, 2) Venturi meter and 3) pitot (pronounced PEE-toh) tube
There is normally enough time in this experiment to conduct enough trials (3 total
REPLICATES) for some statistics.
Minimum Analysis that you must present in your report:

Discuss your calibration process and analyze the precision/accuracy of the computerbased flow meter.

Analyze the impact of how factors such as flow rate, flow regime, pipe size, pipe
roughness, pipe angles and pipe fittings affect the head loss (i.e., pressure drop) caused
by friction.

Importantly, results should be compared to theoretical model(s) to determine the
effectiveness of predicting using these model(s). This applies to two main parts
of the experiment: 1) for pipe fittings and sizes, how well does the theoretical
head loss match with your actual head loss and 2) for the pressure-based
flowmeters (venturi, orifice, pitot), how well does the calculated flow rate (based
on measured head loss) match with your actual flow rate?



Discussion and analysis of why results agree or disagree with these
correlations should be included. Discussion of the importance of flow
regime on the theoretical models and their accuracy in your results should
be included.
There are a lot of factors that will impact your results (e.g., pipe size, roughness,
angle, flow rates)! Before lab, think carefully about the most effective ways to
determine the effects of all these factors and after lab, think critically about the best
method to communicate/show your data in an efficient manner.
Make sure to analyze and discuss data reproducibility; e.g., looking at uncertainty in
measurements (“error”) and error propagation. This is especially critical when analyzing
and comparing the various methods of measuring flow rates to understand their
accuracy/precision.
2
CHE 352
Appendix A: Diagrams/Labels of Apparatus
Figure A1. Hydraulics Apparatus in the lab (SCOB190)
3
CHE 352
Figure A2. Hydraulics Apparatus schematic and labels
4
Turbulent Head
Orifice
Venturi
Pitot static tube
p1
0.06
0.11
0.12
p2
-0.01
-0.16
0.22
Rough Pipe
Smooth pipe(big)
smooth pipe(small)
2.67
1.68
2.43
1.67
1.49
1.2
Transitional
c
Venturi
Pitot static tube
p1
-0.47
-0.44
-0.43
p2
-0.46
-0.48
-0.37
Rough Pipe
Smooth pipe(big)
smooth pipe(small)
0.76
0.48
0.57
0.61
0.44
0.29
Laminar
Orifice
Venturi
Pitot static tube
p1
-0.04
-0.14
-0.21
p2
-0.07
-0.18
-0.06
Rough Pipe
Smooth pipe(big)
smooth pipe(small)
0.95
0.77
0.69
0.94
0.76
0.6
flow rate 0.338 (Cylinder)
flow 0.141
Turbulent (2)
Transitional (2)
p1
0.47
0.56
0.58
p2
0.36
0.1
0.73
4.19
2.71
3.76
2.52
2.4
1.88
p1
-0.43
-0.41
-0.41
p2
-0.44
-0.46
-0.32
0.83
0.51
0.64
0.65
0.48
0.33
flow rate 0.54 L/s
From computer: Head 2,
Inner pipe diameters
1m distance between large pressure points
ID rough pipe: 17.00 mm = 0.01700m
Pipe Area: 2.270 *10-4 m2
Q = 2.464*10-4 m3/s
ID smooth pipe: 17.25mm = 0.01725m
Pipe Area: 2.337*10-4
Q = 2.500*10-4 m3/s
ID small pipe:10.80mm = 0.01080m
Pipe Area: 9.161*10-5
Q = 1.565*10-4 m3/s
Roughness factor for a steel pipe: 0.0015mm (absolute roughness)
Reynolds Number:

● Where is the molecular viscosity (1.15*10-3 N*s/m2)
● Where is density (999 kg/m3 at 15oC)
Turbulent Flow: Re > 4000
In our case, flow rates greater than 0.25 L/s (rough: 0.2464 L/s, smooth: 0.2500 L/s,
small: 0.1565L/s)
Transition: 4000 > Re > 2000
In our case, flow rates between 0.125 L/s and 0.1565 L/s (the smallest turbulent value
and the largest laminar value)
Laminar: 2000 > Re
In our case, flow rates lower than 0.0783 L/s (rough: 0.1232L/s, smooth: 0.1250L/s,
small: 0.0783L/s)
=
For a circular pipe flowing full, the head loss due to friction is calculated as:
4 2 2
ℎ = 2 = 2
Laminar flow at low velocities where ℎ
Turbulent flow at higher velocities where ℎ
L=1m
Flow rates we will use:
Large Rough Pipe
Turbulent: 0.40 L/s
Transition: 0.14 L/s
Laminar: 0.07 L/s
Large Smooth Pipe:
Turbulent: 0.40 L/s
Transition: 0.14 L/s
Laminar: 0.07 L/s
Small Pipe:
Turbulent: 0.40 L/s
Transition: 0.14 L/s
Laminar: 0.07 L/s
Calibration
At Flowmeter = 0.41(Turbulent)
Trial-1
FlowmeterL/s
0.41
Cylinder L/s
0.338
Trial-2
Trial-3
Trial-4
Trial-5
0.338
0.330
0.338
0.335
Trial-2
Trial-3
Trial-4
Trial-5
0.142
0.145
0.138
0.142
Avg = 0.336 L/s
At Flowmeter =0.1(Transitional)
Trial-1
FlowmeterL/s
0.141
Cylinder L/s
0.141
Avg =0.142 L/S
At Flowmeter = (Laminar)
Trial-1
Trial-2
Trial-3
Trial-4
Trial-5
0.074
0.069
0.072
0.074
Trial-1
Trial-2
Trial-3
Trial-4
Trial-5
Flowmeter
L/s
0.15
0.14
Cylinder L/s
.153
0.151
0.155
0.151
0.150
Trial-1
Trial-2
Trial-3
Trial-4
Trial-5
Flowmeter
L/s
0.51
0.53
0.54
0.53
0.54
Cylinder
.437
.437
.436
.447
0.452
FlowmeterL/s
0.00
Cylinder L/s
0.0699
Average = 0.0718
@ 2nd Transitional Flow
Avg = 0.152 L/s
@ 2nd Turbulent Flow
Avg = 0.442 L/s
Technical Memo
Motivation:
Technical memos are a way to concisely share important information about a project with
specific people in an organization. Memos are often used to facilitate streamlined
communications within an organization and it is standard practice for a business to save
all written memos for decades. Furthermore, since technical memos must be brief, you
should focus on using an ‘economy of words and ideas’. That is, state only what is
critical to the project and what needs to be said and do not add ‘fluff’! However, this does
not mean that you can leave out required analysis or components – you must still
incorporate all these elements, you just need to be efficient with your presentation. These
assignments will help you to become proficient in writing technical memos. It’s easy to
be concise and it’s easy to be detailed but it is very difficult to be both concise and
detailed at the same time. This is one of the most important communication skills you
can learn as an engineer. This skill will be used often in industry including memos, emails, presentations, etc. and it is vital that you practice this skill.
Audience:
Assume that your boss has a B.S. in chemical engineering and has been in a
management position within the company for the last 15 years. As such, your boss is
familiar with the basic chemical engineering concepts but may have forgotten the details
involved in specific phenomena and calculations.
Style:
Technical memos are often ~8-14 pages in length (double spaced, including figures), plus
references/appendices (be aware that depending on the experiment, this may be lower
or higher as some experiments necessitate more figures and/or discussion which take up
more space). Memos are typically arranged so that the most important information is
presented first. The first paragraph (summary) should give the most important information
because, in the real world, some memo readers (not including your TAs or Instructor) will
not read the entire document. The rest of the body of the memo should answer questions
the reader may have developed when reading the first paragraph. Relevant raw data
(and supplementary analysis) and calculations should be included as an appendix at the
end of the memo
Planning a Memo:
Consider the following questions before beginning to write your Technical Memo:
1. Who is my audience? Write in such a way that your audience will understand the
content of the memo. You should also write so that a future audience will
understand the situation and the information being conveyed.
2. What is my objective or purpose for writing the memo?
1
3. What is the scope? (i.e. What information do I need to communicate to my
audience?)
4. Which information is essential, which is good to know, which is “extra”?
5. How should the memo be organized? Think about a logical way to arrange the
information. Section headers, formatting, figures, and tables are a used to bring
attention to important pieces of information.
1. Summary



You should start this on the same page as your memo heading.
This is the first paragraph of the Memo and also the most important.
A well-prepared summary should allow your readers to identify the contents of the
memo quickly and accurately. Focus on the underlying take home message and
do not mince words. As always, be quantitative and use numbers.
2. Introduction

It is important to convey the purpose and objectives of the experiment/project and
summarize the basic approach to the problem. Briefly outline relevant background
and discuss important assumptions made. Remember, an introduction should
provide background theory and motivate the purpose of the experiment.

The required elements covered in the technical memo introduction are the same
as those in the full technical report – however, excess theory (e.g., complicated or
supplementary equations and derivatives) can be put into an appendix and
referenced in the introduction.

As a main purpose of a technical memo is to inform about the implications of an
experiment, significant effort should go into providing real world details and
effects.
3. Materials, Methods and Safety

You should briefly answer questions such as: o
What
was
measured?
o
How was it measured?
o
o
What variables did you change and to what levels? Why did you change
these variables and choose these levels?
What are the specific safety concerns of experiment and how were they
addressed?
2

Keep procedural details to as few as possible while still allowing the reader to fully
understand and duplicate your experiment.

Provide an apparatus schematic/figure. For the technical memo, you can utilize
a picture (or multiple pictures) taken in lab but it must be clearly labelled with all
details! You can also create the schematic on your own, similar to the full technical
report.
4. Results and Discussion



Combine these sections to conserve space.
Discuss the impact of your findings as you report them (key difference
from full tech reports!). This section should be used to connect your
data analysis to your conclusions. You should elaborate on key ideas
as needed. Use appropriate tables and figures to communicate key
ideas.
Not all data has to be presented within the body of the memo; only the
most important/relevant. Supplementary data/figures/tables should be
placed in the appendices and referenced in the main body of the memo.
o Note that results are not the raw data – the numbers you recorded from
the lab instruments – as this usually goes in the appendices. Results
are the analysis of the data!

The required elements covered in the technical memo results and
discussion sections are mostly the same as those in the full technical
report. Key differences are shown below in red:
o

Interpretation of ALL key results – focus on discussing key
trends and patterns that are present in the analysis.
Directly compare and discuss different data sets across the experiment.
Focus on how your variables relate to each other. Be quantitative!
o
Relation to literature and real-world implications – compare
results
directly
to
what
other
researchers
have
found/calculated/measured (i.e., literature) to ‘calibrate’ your
work. Be quantitative!

Comparison to literature helps ensure that your results are accurate
(e.g., other researchers have gotten similar values for efficiency of this
apparatus so it is likely that my results are relatively accurate).

A heavy focus of the discussion should be on relating your results to the
real world and what others have found. What are the implications of
your experimental results on real world operation of the apparatuses
3
and processes? This can include elements such as energy use,
efficiency, cost of operation, situational usage, recommendations, etc.

Here, there should be much less focus on theory (compared to a full
tech report) and more focus on literature results and how your results
and analyses can be utilized for real world processes (e.g., “…based on
the results presented, pumps in parallel should be utilized in situations
when XX flow rates are needed”).
o Discussion of Error/Limitations – If your results deviated from
expectations, theory, literature or simply looked weird, you need to
provide some explanation for that.

What are the potential sources of error? Did you try to account
for this error during the experiment or in your analysis? How did
this error affect your results

What are the limitations of your experiment? What aspects of
this phenomena did you not investigate and why not? What
recommendations do you have to overcome these limitations?
5. Conclusion

The conclusion for a technical memo should cover topics similar to those for the
full technical report but should generally be more concise and focus on the most
important take away points from each aspect of the experiment.

Additional focus must be given to real-world applications/implications of the
experimental analysis.
6. References
References requirements for technical memos are the same as for full-technical reports.
This should usually be on the order of 5-10 for technical memos (at least 5 required for
full reports and tech memos). Note that websites are not considered as acceptable points
of references (you can always find a more reputable and reliable source!).
7. Notation

For Technical Memos, symbols must not be defined in the text. Instead, include
the Notation section after the References section to define all symbols used.

Notation is equivalent to a “list of terms”. Use this section to define all symbols and
variables utilized in the report. Symbols cited should be listed alphabetically in the
4
order of Roman symbols, letters, subscripts and superscripts. Be sure that all
symbols are defined somewhere in the report and include units!
8. Appendices
• Appendices requirements for technical memos are the same as for full-technical
reports.
Page numbers on all pages.
SI Units.
The Système International d’Unités (SI) must be used for all dimensional quantities,
whose list is available here: https://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/units.html
5
Further discussion on report content and writing based
on TA comments over the years

The point of a Lab Report is not to prove you did the experiment, but to convince the
reader that you either learned or were able to verify something about the theory, models,
and empirical approaches used by ChEs – how empirical approaches can be justified, or
how theory or theoretical predictions can be measured and verified or used to find out
something new (or at least new to the author).

The audience for full technical reports is technically trained but not necessarily in
chemical engineering. Especially when writing theory/background, you should not
assume your reader has familiarity with chemical engineering theory/terminology; you
should assume they understand basic algebra, calculus, and college chemistry/physics.

There will rarely be a reason for you to use bullets/numbering within a report. You need
to write in paragraphs – succinctly, but with enough detail that the reader can follow easily
(not like textbooks you may have encountered that require 15 minutes to decipher a single
paragraph!).

Your analysis must be explicitly described in your pre-lab before you set foot in the lab for
an experiment. You will not just ‘use an equation;’ you will need to understand all
equations and how you will use them. Before setting foot in the lab, you will need to know
how you will pre-analyze your raw data before inserting into analysis software. Before you
set foot in the lab, you will need to have an explicit plan for how you will handle error
analysis (Error propagation based on precision? Statistical measures of reproducibility?).

A note about tables vs. plots: Normally, plots have more impact than tables. As a rule, if
you have the choice of whether to present data in a table or in a plot, you are better off
using a plot. Tables are good for data that doesn’t show a discernable pattern or for data
representing a collection of lots of information with lots of different units. There is
essentially no good reason to include BOTH a table AND a plot of the same data in the
body of a report.
6
Methods to Improve Figure Quality and
Production
Drs. Machas, Acharya
CHE 352, ASU
One of the most significant problems we see in lab reports is poor quality charts/graphs. The main
problem is not necessarily the formatting of these graphs but the image quality (e.g., lots of pixelation).
It seems that much of this problem seems to stem from the importing of graphs made in Excel into Google
docs to write reports. We made this document in an effort to give some methods to improve the quality
of images when imported from Excel. We have also included some information on how to help speed up
the process of producing well-formatted graphs.
If you have any tips or tricks that would be useful to your classmates,
please share and I will add to this document!
Improving Image Quality
1
I have made a graph in Excel showing the population of ASU students in undergraduate, graduate and
online programs from 2013-2017. I have removed gridlines, added a border and axes titles but not
changed the size of the graph, font sizes of the axes titles/labels, or line/marker sizes. My default font
for axes labels and legend is “Calibri, 9” (Font, Font Size) and default font for axes titles is “Calibri, 10”.
The graph generated by Excel (with axes labels and legend) is ~7.5 cells wide and ~14 cells high.
By simply copying the figure from excel and pasting into the Google Doc, I get Figure 1. This figure is a
bit too small for publication, so, to make it easier to see, we can increase the size of the figure in Google
Docs to produce Figure 2, which has significant pixelation.
Figure 1. The graph copied and pasted from Excel into Google Docs.
Figure 2. The enlarged version of Figure 1.
One good way to improve image quality is to increase the size of (essentially) everything. I have taken
my Excel graph (as shown in Figure 1) and increased the font size of axes labels/legend to 15 and font
2
size of axis titles to 17. Additionally, the line width of my data lines have been increased from 1.5 pt to 3
pt and the data marker size has increased from 5 to 9. I have also doubled the size of my chart in Excel
– instead of the chart being ~7.5 cells wide and ~14 cells high, it is now ~15 cells wide and ~28 cells high.
When I now copy and paste my graph from Excel to Google Docs, I get Figure 3 below. As you can see,
when pasted, the graph is, by default, already much bigger. There is no need to make it larger in Google
Doc (which is the cause of the pixelation in Figure 2) as it is already large enough from publication. Even
with the improvements, you can see there are still some issues so making everything even bigger would
help even more.
Figure 3. The enlarged graph copied and pasted from Excel into Google Docs.
When in doubt, make everything bigger in Excel! It will look a lot better if you shrink a large
graph then if you enlarge a small graph.
One other thing you can do is copy the graph from Excel, and then right click on any cell in Excel. When
you right click, you should see several paste options pop up including one that says “Picture”. If you click
this, your graph will now be pasted as a picture (no longer a graph). You will see that you will not be able
to edit this as a graph because it is simply a picture of your graph. Sometimes this can help improve the
3
quality of a graph. I have done this with the same graph that was utilized to make Figure 3. The picture
that I made in Excel with the above procedure, I have now copied and pasted into Google Docs as seen
in Figure 4 below. The difference in quality between Figures 3 and 4 is not a lot but this is one method
to perhaps improve image quality a bit.
Figure 4. The enlarged graph copied and pasted as a picture in Excel and then copied and pasted
from Excel into Google Docs.
Improving Speed of Production of Charts/Graphs
One way you can improve the production of graphs is, instead of changing the graph from the Excel
default every single time to properly format, you can save the chart template so that when you select new
data to make a new chart, your graph is (mostly) already properly formatted.
4
To do this, follow the below steps (done in Excel on Windows):
1. Right click on a chart that is already fully, properly formatted.
2. Click “Save as Template…”
3. A file prompt should show up asking you to name your “Chart Template File”
a. Give it whatever name you prefer; I used “CHE352” and click “Save”
b. The chart template should now be saved.
4. To utilize your new chart template, select data in your spreadsheet, go to the “Insert” tab and
click on the arrow button in the bottom right of the “Charts” section (see figure below).
5. This will bring you to the “Insert Chart” pop-up. There will likely be two tabs: “Recommended
Charts” and “All Charts”. Click on “All Charts”.
6. There will be a lot of different chart options available: you want to click on “Templates” and
then select the template which you created (in my case, “CHE352”).
7. Excel will then generate your formatted chart from your data allowing you to skip many tedious
steps!
5

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