ACC Pricing Positioning and Branding Strategies for Product Success Presentation

Description

Pricing, Positioning and Branding: Establish strategies for determining the price of your product, where your product
will be positioned in the market and how you will achieve brand awareness.TEAM 12 – UTSAH
Energy Poverty
Index
• Project Deliverable 1: Problem to be Solved – slide 3
• Project Deliverable 2: Vision of the Future – slide 14
• Project Deliverable 3: Proposed Future Product – 18
• Project Deliverable 4: Business Plan
• Bibliography
Project Deliverable 1: Problem to be Solved
Energy Poverty
• Energy poverty is a widespread problem that affects millions of people worldwide. It occurs
when households lack access to adequate and affordable energy services, such as electricity
and clean cooking fuels. Energy poverty has significant social, economic, and environmental
impacts.
• A more succinct definition is any level of energy availability that is insufficient to meet basic
needs (González-Eguino, M., 2015).
Energy Poverty: footstep power generation
• Footstep power generation is a form of renewable energy technology that converts the
mechanical energy generated by people’s footsteps into electrical energy.
• This technology can be used in various settings, including public places such as airports,
train stations, and shopping malls, as well as in rural areas where access to electricity is
limited. The generated energy can power lighting systems, signage, and other low-power
electrical devices, helping to reduce reliance on grid-connected electricity.
• Footstep power generation has several advantages over traditional forms of electricity
generation. It is a clean and renewable energy source that does not produce harmful
greenhouse gas emissions, unlike fossil fuel-based power plants. It is also a cost-effective
solution for generating electricity in areas where traditional electricity infrastructure is not
available or feasible.
• However, there are also some limitations to this technology. Footstep power generation
typically generates low levels of electrical power, and it may not be suitable for high-power
applications. It may also require a significant investment in infrastructure to install the
piezoelectric sensors and associated electrical components.
Project Deliverable 1: Energy Poverty
• 1. Use the 5x Why tool (p.67-70)
• 2. Use the Extreme Users tool (p.79-82)
• 3. Use the Customer Journal Map tool (p.103-106)
• 4. Use the AEIOU tool (p.107-110)
5x Why Technique
• 5X Why is a technique used for problem-solving, which involves asking “why” questions
five times in order to identify the root cause of the problem. This method is a structured
approach that aims to reveal underlying causes that might not be easily recognizable.
• The process of 5X Why requires asking “why” five times to reach the root cause of the
problem. The subsequent “why” questions depend on the answer to the previous one, and the
process continues until the root cause is identified. This technique is commonly used in
various industries, including manufacturing, healthcare, and software development, to
improve quality management and continuous improvement processes (Lewrick, M., Link, P.,
& Leifer, L., 2020).
Extreme User Tool
Extreme User tool involves finding and researching user groups who are not generally
representative of the public. To acquire insight into potential design issues and opportunities
related to footstep power-generating technology.
Lead User:
• Lead users are individuals who are at the forefront of trends and have needs that are not yet
met by current products or services in the market.
• In the context of footstep power generation, lead users may exhibit particular traits like
environmental awareness, an active lifestyle, and an innovative mindset.
• Footstep power generation technology involves a complex interaction between the user, the
technology, and the environment, which can create unique challenges for designers.
• The lead user technique can be used to identify users who have a strong desire to reduce
their carbon footprint, an interest in renewable and sustainable energy sources, and are
willing to adopt new technologies and innovations.
• Lead users can help designers better understand user demands and behaviors so that they can
develop solutions that are more efficient, friendly, and sustainable.
Extreme User Tool
Extreme User
• Extreme users in the context of footstep power generation are individuals who have unique
needs, behaviors, and attitudes that are not representative of the general population.
• High energy needs, physical restrictions, environmental concerns, and a high level of
technological literacy are characteristics of extreme users in footstep power generation.
• Designers must consider a wider range of user needs and potential use scenarios when
designing for extreme users, which might lead to more challenging design requirements.
• The process for investigating extreme users in footstep power production includes defining
extreme user groups, recruiting users, conducting research, assessing data, and translating
findings into design requirements.
• The Outcomes that can improve the technology for generating power from footsteps while
also enhancing its effectiveness, sustainability, and user satisfaction (Lewrick, M., Link, P.,
& Leifer, L., 2020).
Customer Journey Mapping
• Customer journey map is a tool that allows us to build empathy with the customer by
visualizing his/her actions, thoughts, emotions, and feelings
• It is different from a process map which only maps the internal process of a company
• It looks at the actions not directly associated with the product or service
• It is used in the “understand”, “observe” and “prototype” phases
• It provides a good base for the creation of a service blueprint
• It is used to identify “moments of misery” that negatively affect the customer experience
• Tools that support working with the customer journey map are Interviews for Empathy,
Persona/User Profiles and Jobs to be Done
Customer Journey Mapping – How the Tool is Applied
• Step 1: Choose a persona to be used in the customer journey map and share the
story of the persona with the design team
• Step 2: Choose a scenario or job to be done
• Step 3: Define what happens BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER the actual
experience
• Step 4: Decide which interactions should be assigned where and how
• Step 5: Supplement what the persona thinks
• Step 6: Supplement the emotion the persona feels
• Step 7: Define potential areas of improvement
• Step 8: Define people responsible for the action/process within the organization
AEIOU Tool
• Designers should consider the activities, surroundings, interactions, objects, and people
involved in the use of a product or service, according to the AEIOU design thinking
framework (Design Council, 2010).
• The AEIOU tool can help determine user wants and develop fresh suggestions for goods and
services (Nussbaum, 2018).
• Designers may create more efficient solutions that satisfy users’ requirements and address
their issues by using the AEIOU tool to collect information and insights about users and their
context (Brown & Katz, 2011).
• How The Tool Is Applied:
• Step 1: Research
• Step 2: Observation
• Step 3: AEIOU Tool
AEIOU Tool
Research On Footstep Power Generator:
One can perform user research using questionnaires, interviews, and observations to identify potential footstep
power generator users.
The following sources go over these techniques and their application to user research:
• Dan Saffer and Alan Cooper cover many techniques for conducting user research, including surveys,
interviews, and contextual inquiry, in their book “Designing for Interaction: Building Smart Apps and
Intelligent Gadgets” (Saffer & Cooper, 2018).
• In a study described in a research paper by Mirzaei et al. (2018), the authors interviewed prospective users of
an intelligent floor energy harvesting system to learn about their demands and behaviors.
• In order to acquire information about the application of footstep energy harvesting in a mall and shed light on
the viability and efficacy of the technology, Alahmadi et al. (2020) employed surveys and observations.
In conclusion, it is crucial to undertake user research utilizing techniques like surveys, interviews, and
observations, while also taking ethical considerations for user research to learn where, when, and how to locate
potential users of a footstep power generator.
AEIOU Tool
Observation on Footstep Power Generator:
Considering the specific use case and environment in which the generator will be employed to comprehend the
user/customer in the context of the issue statement for footstep power generators is crucial. Potential consumers or users
of footstep power generators might be, for instance:

Pedestrians and commuters move through congested metropolitan areas or on sidewalks.

In nature reserves, national parks, or other outdoor recreation zones, hikers and outdoor enthusiasts

In high-traffic venues like malls, airports, or train stations, staff members or guests(Alahmadi, Khan, & Alarifi, 2020)
Researchers could conduct user research, such as interviews or surveys with people in these circumstances, to understand
where the user or customer is in the problem statement’s context. For instance, if the footstep power generator is meant to
be used in a mall, researchers could talk to mall patrons to get their comments on the item and learn more about their
wants and habits in that setting. Nevertheless, if the generator is designed for outdoor use, researchers could speak with
hikers or outdoor enthusiasts nearby and ask them questions or administer surveys.
Researchers can better understand user needs, behaviors, and preferences by doing user research in the exact locations
where potential users or consumers can be found. This can aid in the creation of footstep power generators that are
adapted to the unique situations and requirements of the users. (Saffer & Cooper, 2018;Hwang, Jeon, & Mirzaei, 2019)
What will 30 years
from now look like?
How will you change
the industry
boundary?
Where your
product/service fits in
the market and
describe who you
want to reach, why
this is important and
how you’re going to
do it.
The best approach is
to find a gap where
there is customer
demand, and where
your competitors are
not satisfying this
demand as well as
you could do it.
Project
Deliverable
2: Vision of
the Future
In the past, access to energy was limited, and many communities relied on traditional and
inefficient energy sources, the benefits of industrialization were not shared equally.
What will
30 years
from now
look like?
Now it is estimated that around 760 million people worldwide still lack access to electricity,
and about 2.6 billion people lack access to clean cooking facilities.
Governments, organizations, and individuals must work together to increase access to
modern energy services and promote sustainable energy solutions.
Regarding the future state of energy poverty, there are some initiatives and trends that could
help reduce the number of people affected by this issue. Factors such as population growth,
urbanization, and climate change, will increase the demand for energy.
The future will exacerbate the dichotomy of our present state with the larger more developed
countries continuing to advance and develop while smaller less developed countries will
struggle to close the development gap.
At some point if life expectancy remains near 50 for the poorest of countries and approached
100 in the most advanced we could see a world where two generations pass during the life
time of the citizens of our most advanced countries.
Where your
product/service
fits in the
market and
describe who
you want to
reach, why this
is important and
how you’re
going to do it.
Where the products fit: Our research shows us that low-cost piece-meal
solutions and awareness rate as both quick and cheap. Identifying areas to
begin and education are more time-consuming but affordable and that
microfinancing though costly is quick to implement. Extending existing
infrastructure and planning new infrastructure are both costly and time
intensive. So this first pass tells us that any final solution should avoid large
infrastructure projects. The ideal solution will be an affordable point solution,
that can be implemented over existing infrastructure and is placed in areas
that provide the most impact to the citizens of that area.
We aim to reach underserviced areas of our world. Those communities that
are off-grid, remote, and rural. Why is this important? Because maybe before
we reach for the stars we can ensure that every child can reach for a book. We
have drastically underserved areas that we must help. It is one thing to decide
to live off-grid and without electricity but another to need it and not have it
available. We need better solutions as solar and wind can be costly to
implement.
GAP: Existing markets do not provide complete electrical connectivity
Market focused on the demand for sustainable energy like wind and solar power
Find a gap where
there is customer
demand, and satisfy
this demand
Hesitant to invest in other renewable energy sources due to higher upfront costs by optimizing production and
distribution costs
Focus on outcompeting rivals within an existing market by providing superior value to customers.
Create new demand for their product by identifying untapped customer needs and developing a unique value
proposition differentiating them from other renewable energy sources
Targeting developing countries lacking access to reliable electricity sources
Entails establishing a new market space in which competition is irrelevant, emphasizing creating and capturing new
demand. The footstep power generator business can create a new market space free of competition by focusing on the
social and environmental benefits of the footstep power generator and targeting developing countries that lack access
to reliable sources of electricity
Find a gap where there is customer demand, and satisfy this demand
GAP: Existing markets do not provide complete electrical connectivity. Market
focused on the demand for sustainable energy like wind and solar power.
Satisfy: Focus on revolutionizing off-grid market by providing superior value
to customers in remote communities. Target developing countries lacking
access to reliable electricity sources, identify untapped resources and develop
a unique product differentiating us from other renewable energy sources.
Project Deliverable 3: Vision of the Future
Describe your product to be
developed.
How is your product futureoriented?
How does your product
relate to the market?
Describe your competition.
Develop your “unique
selling proposition,” which
should be articulated as a
“unique customer value”
What makes you stand
apart from your
competition?
What is your competition
doing better, the same or
worse than you and where
is the gap?
Piezoelectric plates and woven fabrics for farmyards/animals
Describe your
product to be
developed.

Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid
materials—such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as
bone, DNA, and various proteins—in response to applied mechanical stress
(Skoog, D. A., Holler, F. J., & Crouch, S. R., 2007).

Researchers have developed fabrics and plates that when stretched or bent
generate electricity.

The practical application has two limits. Limited output: 3 kilos of the material
only produces 4 microwatts, enough power to intermittently power an LED
(Montalbano, 2018). To increase output is to increase weight. Limited scope:
most fabric applications focus on human use BUT what if we applied the
technology to farmyards/animals?

1.5 billion cows, 1.2 billion sheep, 1.1 billion goats, 21.8 billion chickens, 58.8
million horses, 10 million mules, 985 million pigs, 462 million turkeys, 42
million asses = 28,155,000,000 animals farmed worldwide (chickens can’t carry
much weight but 21.8 billion microwatts would add up) (Our World in Data).

The fabric can scale for mass construction at a cost that is comparable to the
price of the material Gore-Tex, which is already used for active and outdoor
wear. (Montalbano, 2018).

Piezoelectric fabrics that not only continue to function when in contact with
water but show enhanced performance (Lund, A., et al., 2018).
Describe your product to be developed.
Piezoelectric woven fabrics for farmyards/animals

The product would be piezoelectric fabrics designed for animals and ceramic piezoelectric plates for high-traffic areas in the farmyard.

Why animals and is it ethical to use animals in this way?
• Our team goal was to ask how we can bring power to rural areas with little to no infrastructure. The team research showed that we need a
low-cost, low-infrastructure requirement solution that can be deployed as point solutions due to the nature of rural environments.

Why animals? We needed to identify a resource available to rural areas; animals seemed like a common resource required to live in poor
rural areas.

Is it ethical to exploit animals in this way? As these animals are mainly farmed for their meat to feed the community we do not think the
additional burden of a light weight fabric to be unreasonable and it is hoped that if energy production can be seen as a reason to keep the
animals alive maybe fewer animals will be harvested for their meat.

The product is a customizable kit depending on the farm layout and animals raised. The fabric is lightweight, water resistant, and rugged
enough to perform well in farm yard conditions.

These “energy vests” can recharge batteries used to power a home battery device that provides low-cost, easy-to-operate, clean renewable
energy charged from the motion of your farm animals
How is your product
future-oriented?

An estimated 760 million of our fellow humans do not have access
to electricity. Even minimal access would provide a massive
increase in the standard of living and quality of life for these people

Take for example the energy requirements for common household
items:
• Ceiling fan 75 watts, LED lights 10 watts, Cell phone charger 5
watts, Refrigerator 180 watts, Radio 2 watts, Laptop 60 watts
( Electrical Usage Calculator )

Total 332 watts

332 watts would drastically change the lives of these people.
Imagine what we could do for the lives of people who may live in
rural areas of the world without AC or heaters or stoves but with
only minimal power of 332 watts they could have fans, lights, cell
phone chargers, a laptop, a radio, and refrigeration! What can be
accomplished with basic amenities and access to the wider world?

In 1998 4.33 billion people had access to electricity and 1.63 billion
did not, by 2019 6.91 billion had access and 760 million did not; in
21 years we have added 2.58 billion to power but only decrease
those without by 870 million. You can see in the chart below not
much progress has been made.
HOW IS
YOUR
PRODUCT
FUTUREORIENTED?
How is your product future-oriented?
• Look at the life expectancy and extreme
poverty axis of this graph. Africa and
parts of Asia are being left behind as the
world advances. We don’t just lose the life
of those individuals which is bad enough
but we lose their ideas and dreams. We
are losing time – time humanity may not
have – we lose the combined value of all
of their contributions to our
understanding of the world. We must
bring access to electricity to these parts
of the world. Failure to do so may well be
at our own peril.
How does your product relate to the market?
• Energy poverty products are typically developed and sold by private companies that are seeking to meet the
demand for affordable and reliable energy solutions in areas where traditional energy infrastructure is
lacking.
• The availability and affordability of energy-poverty products can be influenced by market factors such as
supply chain logistics, manufacturing costs, and competition.
• The cost of renewable energy products may decrease due to improvements in manufacturing technology and
economies of scale, making them more affordable for customers in developing countries.
• Consumer preferences for affordable, dependable, and simple-to-use energy solutions can have an impact on
the types of products that are produced and offered for sale, which in turn shapes the market for items
addressing energy poverty
• Government incentives and policies can help shape the market for solutions that address energy poverty by
encouraging innovation and investment in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation.
• As technology advances, costs come down, and the need for clean energy solutions becomes more widely
recognized, the market for goods that address energy poverty is changing quickly.
Describe your
competition.

The piezoelectricity technology market is focusing mainly on three areas: human
wearable devices, structural vibration harvesting and mechanical vibration
harvesting.

Human wearable devices
• Our backpacks and workout clothes potentially have a new way to provide
mobile power thanks to a team of researchers at Chalmers University of
Technology, in collaboration with the Swedish School of Textiles in Sweden
(Montalbano, E., 2018).

Mechanical vibration harvesting
• Energies generated by industrial machinery, vehicles during transportation,
structures, natural sources, human activities, and movement of body organs can
be captured and converted into useful electric power without affecting the
original source (Sezer, N., & Koç, M., 2021).

Structural vibration harvesting
• To enable the piezoelectric effect, piezoelectric materials are usually attached to
mechanical structures(e.g. flexible beams) that can deform due to mechanical
vibration and produce strain in piezoelectric material (Liang, H., Hao, G., &
Olszewski, O. Z., 2021).
As such those companies who have established wearable fabrics are placed for direct
competition
The unique customer value we provide is off-grid
renewable energy access to remote and rural users who
own a farm or have animals.
Unique
selling
proposition
Our customer base are those remote and rural
communities with little to no access to the traditional
energy grid and who do not have the money to invest in
solar or wind infrastructure.
Our low-cost, easy-to-attach energy vests for animals
allow customers to use the motion of animals to recharge
batteries
What makes you
stand apart from
your competition?
Off-grid energy companies focus either on solar, wind, or
biomass energy reclamation as such we have a unique
position in focusing on animal motion for energy
generation
When it comes to farm energy use most of the attention
is on energy conservation and efficiency, we add a third
proposition to farm energy discussion in using farms to
generate electricity without large investments
Those companies in the wearable piezoelectric space are
targeting human apparel and as we target animals we
stand apart from fashions and trends
• The largest gap we see is in those businesses focusing
What is your
competition doing
better, the same, or
worse than you, and
where is the gap?
on wearable piezoelectric apparel. They have
experienced manufacturers and access to piezoelectric
fibers that we will need to produce our energy vests.
The contracts they have in place could limit our ability
to access these resources and manufacturers.
• They also have design and test facilities and processes
that we will need to develop and perfect to a rugged
standard for animal use.
Bibliography

González-Eguino, M. (2015). Energy poverty: An overview. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 47, 377-385.

Lewrick, M., Link, P., & Leifer, L. (2020). The design thinking toolbox: A guide to mastering the most popular and valuable innovation methods. John
Wiley & Sons.

Design Council. (2010). The design process: AEIOU. Retrieved from https://www.designcouncil.org.uk/news-opinion/design-process-aeiou

Nussbaum, B. (2018). Design thinking is fundamentally conservative and preserves the status quo. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from
https://hbr.org/2018/09/design-thinking-is-fundamentally-conservative-and-preserves-the-status-quo

Brown, T., & Katz, B. (2011). Change by design: How design thinking transforms organizations and inspires innovation. HarperCollins.

Saffer, D., & Cooper, A. (2018). Designing for Interaction: Creating Smart Applications and Clever Devices (3rd ed.). New Riders.

Mirzaei, M., Jeon, H. G., & Hwang, J. (2018). User-centered design of a smart floor energy harvesting system for indoor applications. Energies, 11(6),
1476. doi: 10.3390/en11061476

Alahmadi, H. A., Khan, M. S., & Alarifi, A. (2020). Footstep energy harvesting: A feasibility study in a shopping mall. Energies, 13(20), 5242. doi:
10.3390/en13205242

Hwang, J., Jeon, H.G., & Mirzaei, M. (2019). Smart floor energy harvesting: A comprehensive review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 111,
24-39. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2019.05.049)

Kim, W. C., & Mauborgne, R. (2005). Blue ocean strategy: From theory to practice. California Management Review, 47(3), 105-121.

Skoog, D. A., Holler, F. J., & Crouch, S. R. (2007). Instrumental analysis (Vol. 47). Belmont: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Montalbano, E. (2018, April 5). This Flexible, Piezoelectric Fabric Turns Kinetic Energy Into Electricity. Designnews.com. Retrieved March 29, 2023,
from https://www.designnews.com/materials-assembly/flexible-piezoelectric-fabric-turns-kinetic-energy-electricity

Livestock counts, World, 1890 to 2014. Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/livestock-counts?tab=table&time=1890..latest

Sezer, N., & Koç, M. (2021). A comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art of piezoelectric energy harvesting. Nano Energy, 80, 105567.

Liang, H., Hao, G., & Olszewski, O. Z. (2021). A review on vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesting from the aspect of compliant mechanisms. Sensors
and Actuators A: Physical, 331, 112743.

Lund, A., Rundqvist, K., Nilsson, E., Yu, L., Hagström, B., & Müller, C. (2018, March 22). Energy harvesting textiles for a rainy day: Woven
piezoelectrics based on melt-spun PVDF microfibres with a conducting core. Nature.com. Retrieved March 30, 2023, from
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41528-018-0022-4

Calculate Electricity Usage. Energy Use Calculator. Retrieved March 31, 2023, from https://energyusecalculator.com/calculate_electrical_usage.htm
TEAM 12 – UTSAH
Energy Poverty
Index
• Project Deliverable 1: Problem to be Solved – slide 3
• Project Deliverable 2: Vision of the Future – slide 14
• Project Deliverable 3: Proposed Future Product – 18
• Project Deliverable 4: Business Plan
• Bibliography
Project Deliverable 1: Problem to be Solved
Energy Poverty
• Energy poverty is a widespread problem that affects millions of people worldwide. It occurs
when households lack access to adequate and affordable energy services, such as electricity
and clean cooking fuels. Energy poverty has significant social, economic, and environmental
impacts.
• A more succinct definition is any level of energy availability that is insufficient to meet basic
needs (González-Eguino, M., 2015).
Energy Poverty: footstep power generation
• Footstep power generation is a form of renewable energy technology that converts the
mechanical energy generated by people’s footsteps into electrical energy.
• This technology can be used in various settings, including public places such as airports,
train stations, and shopping malls, as well as in rural areas where access to electricity is
limited. The generated energy can power lighting systems, signage, and other low-power
electrical devices, helping to reduce reliance on grid-connected electricity.
• Footstep power generation has several advantages over traditional forms of electricity
generation. It is a clean and renewable energy source that does not produce harmful
greenhouse gas emissions, unlike fossil fuel-based power plants. It is also a cost-effective
solution for generating electricity in areas where traditional electricity infrastructure is not
available or feasible.
• However, there are also some limitations to this technology. Footstep power generation
typically generates low levels of electrical power, and it may not be suitable for high-power
applications. It may also require a significant investment in infrastructure to install the
piezoelectric sensors and associated electrical components.
Project Deliverable 1: Energy Poverty
• 1. Use the 5x Why tool (p.67-70)
• 2. Use the Extreme Users tool (p.79-82)
• 3. Use the Customer Journal Map tool (p.103-106)
• 4. Use the AEIOU tool (p.107-110)
5x Why Technique
• 5X Why is a technique used for problem-solving, which involves asking “why” questions
five times in order to identify the root cause of the problem. This method is a structured
approach that aims to reveal underlying causes that might not be easily recognizable.
• The process of 5X Why requires asking “why” five times to reach the root cause of the
problem. The subsequent “why” questions depend on the answer to the previous one, and the
process continues until the root cause is identified. This technique is commonly used in
various industries, including manufacturing, healthcare, and software development, to
improve quality management and continuous improvement processes (Lewrick, M., Link, P.,
& Leifer, L., 2020).
Extreme User Tool
Extreme User tool involves finding and researching user groups who are not generally
representative of the public. To acquire insight into potential design issues and opportunities
related to footstep power-generating technology.
Lead User:
• Lead users are individuals who are at the forefront of trends and have needs that are not yet
met by current products or services in the market.
• In the context of footstep power generation, lead users may exhibit particular traits like
environmental awareness, an active lifestyle, and an innovative mindset.
• Footstep power generation technology involves a complex interaction between the user, the
technology, and the environment, which can create unique challenges for designers.
• The lead user technique can be used to identify users who have a strong desire to reduce
their carbon footprint, an interest in renewable and sustainable energy sources, and are
willing to adopt new technologies and innovations.
• Lead users can help designers better understand user demands and behaviors so that they can
develop solutions that are more efficient, friendly, and sustainable.
Extreme User Tool
Extreme User
• Extreme users in the context of footstep power generation are individuals who have unique
needs, behaviors, and attitudes that are not representative of the general population.
• High energy needs, physical restrictions, environmental concerns, and a high level of
technological literacy are characteristics of extreme users in footstep power generation.
• Designers must consider a wider range of user needs and potential use scenarios when
designing for extreme users, which might lead to more challenging design requirements.
• The process for investigating extreme users in footstep power production includes defining
extreme user groups, recruiting users, conducting research, assessing data, and translating
findings into design requirements.
• The Outcomes that can improve the technology for generating power from footsteps while
also enhancing its effectiveness, sustainability, and user satisfaction (Lewrick, M., Link, P.,
& Leifer, L., 2020).
Customer Journey Mapping
• Customer journey map is a tool that allows us to build empathy with the customer by
visualizing his/her actions, thoughts, emotions, and feelings
• It is different from a process map which only maps the internal process of a company
• It looks at the actions not directly associated with the product or service
• It is used in the “understand”, “observe” and “prototype” phases
• It provides a good base for the creation of a service blueprint
• It is used to identify “moments of misery” that negatively affect the customer experience
• Tools that support working with the customer journey map are Interviews for Empathy,
Persona/User Profiles and Jobs to be Done
Customer Journey Mapping – How the Tool is Applied
• Step 1: Choose a persona to be used in the customer journey map and share the
story of the persona with the design team
• Step 2: Choose a scenario or job to be done
• Step 3: Define what happens BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER the actual
experience
• Step 4: Decide which interactions should be assigned where and how
• Step 5: Supplement what the persona thinks
• Step 6: Supplement the emotion the persona feels
• Step 7: Define potential areas of improvement
• Step 8: Define people responsible for the action/process within the organization
AEIOU Tool
• Designers should consider the activities, surroundings, interactions, objects, and people
involved in the use of a product or service, according to the AEIOU design thinking
framework (Design Council, 2010).
• The AEIOU tool can help determine user wants and develop fresh suggestions for goods and
services (Nussbaum, 2018).
• Designers may create more efficient solutions that satisfy users’ requirements and address
their issues by using the AEIOU tool to collect information and insights about users and their
context (Brown & Katz, 2011).
• How The Tool Is Applied:
• Step 1: Research
• Step 2: Observation
• Step 3: AEIOU Tool
AEIOU Tool
Research On Footstep Power Generator:
One can perform user research using questionnaires, interviews, and observations to identify potential footstep
power generator users.
The following sources go over these techniques and their application to user research:
• Dan Saffer and Alan Cooper cover many techniques for conducting user research, including surveys,
interviews, and contextual inquiry, in their book “Designing for Interaction: Building Smart Apps and
Intelligent Gadgets” (Saffer & Cooper, 2018).
• In a study described in a research paper by Mirzaei et al. (2018), the authors interviewed prospective users of
an intelligent floor energy harvesting system to learn about their demands and behaviors.
• In order to acquire information about the application of footstep energy harvesting in a mall and shed light on
the viability and efficacy of the technology, Alahmadi et al. (2020) employed surveys and observations.
In conclusion, it is crucial to undertake user research utilizing techniques like surveys, interviews, and
observations, while also taking ethical considerations for user research to learn where, when, and how to locate
potential users of a footstep power generator.
AEIOU Tool
Observation on Footstep Power Generator:
Considering the specific use case and environment in which the generator will be employed to comprehend the
user/customer in the context of the issue statement for footstep power generators is crucial. Potential consumers or users
of footstep power generators might be, for instance:

Pedestrians and commuters move through congested metropolitan areas or on sidewalks.

In nature reserves, national parks, or other outdoor recreation zones, hikers and outdoor enthusiasts

In high-traffic venues like malls, airports, or train stations, staff members or guests(Alahmadi, Khan, & Alarifi, 2020)
Researchers could conduct user research, such as interviews or surveys with people in these circumstances, to understand
where the user or customer is in the problem statement’s context. For instance, if the footstep power generator is meant to
be used in a mall, researchers could talk to mall patrons to get their comments on the item and learn more about their
wants and habits in that setting. Nevertheless, if the generator is designed for outdoor use, researchers could speak with
hikers or outdoor enthusiasts nearby and ask them questions or administer surveys.
Researchers can better understand user needs, behaviors, and preferences by doing user research in the exact locations
where potential users or consumers can be found. This can aid in the creation of footstep power generators that are
adapted to the unique situations and requirements of the users. (Saffer & Cooper, 2018;Hwang, Jeon, & Mirzaei, 2019)
What will 30 years
from now look like?
How will you change
the industry
boundary?
Where your
product/service fits in
the market and
describe who you
want to reach, why
this is important and
how you’re going to
do it.
The best approach is
to find a gap where
there is customer
demand, and where
your competitors are
not satisfying this
demand as well as
you could do it.
Project
Deliverable
2: Vision of
the Future
In the past, access to energy was limited, and many communities relied on traditional and
inefficient energy sources, the benefits of industrialization were not shared equally.
What will
30 years
from now
look like?
Now it is estimated that around 760 million people worldwide still lack access to electricity,
and about 2.6 billion people lack access to clean cooking facilities.
Governments, organizations, and individuals must work together to increase access to
modern energy services and promote sustainable energy solutions.
Regarding the future state of energy poverty, there are some initiatives and trends that could
help reduce the number of people affected by this issue. Factors such as population growth,
urbanization, and climate change, will increase the demand for energy.
The future will exacerbate the dichotomy of our present state with the larger more developed
countries continuing to advance and develop while smaller less developed countries will
struggle to close the development gap.
At some point if life expectancy remains near 50 for the poorest of countries and approached
100 in the most advanced we could see a world where two generations pass during the life
time of the citizens of our most advanced countries.
Where your
product/service
fits in the
market and
describe who
you want to
reach, why this
is important and
how you’re
going to do it.
Where the products fit: Our research shows us that low-cost piece-meal
solutions and awareness rate as both quick and cheap. Identifying areas to
begin and education are more time-consuming but affordable and that
microfinancing though costly is quick to implement. Extending existing
infrastructure and planning new infrastructure are both costly and time
intensive. So this first pass tells us that any final solution should avoid large
infrastructure projects. The ideal solution will be an affordable point solution,
that can be implemented over existing infrastructure and is placed in areas
that provide the most impact to the citizens of that area.
We aim to reach underserviced areas of our world. Those communities that
are off-grid, remote, and rural. Why is this important? Because maybe before
we reach for the stars we can ensure that every child can reach for a book. We
have drastically underserved areas that we must help. It is one thing to decide
to live off-grid and without electricity but another to need it and not have it
available. We need better solutions as solar and wind can be costly to
implement.
GAP: Existing markets do not provide complete electrical connectivity
Market focused on the demand for sustainable energy like wind and solar power
Find a gap where
there is customer
demand, and satisfy
this demand
Hesitant to invest in other renewable energy sources due to higher upfront costs by optimizing production and
distribution costs
Focus on outcompeting rivals within an existing market by providing superior value to customers.
Create new demand for their product by identifying untapped customer needs and developing a unique value
proposition differentiating them from other renewable energy sources
Targeting developing countries lacking access to reliable electricity sources
Entails establishing a new market space in which competition is irrelevant, emphasizing creating and capturing new
demand. The footstep power generator business can create a new market space free of competition by focusing on the
social and environmental benefits of the footstep power generator and targeting developing countries that lack access
to reliable sources of electricity
Find a gap where there is customer demand, and satisfy this demand
GAP: Existing markets do not provide complete electrical connectivity. Market
focused on the demand for sustainable energy like wind and solar power.
Satisfy: Focus on revolutionizing off-grid market by providing superior value
to customers in remote communities. Target developing countries lacking
access to reliable electricity sources, identify untapped resources and develop
a unique product differentiating us from other renewable energy sources.
Project Deliverable 3: Vision of the Future
Describe your product to be
developed.
How is your product futureoriented?
How does your product
relate to the market?
Describe your competition.
Develop your “unique
selling proposition,” which
should be articulated as a
“unique customer value”
What makes you stand
apart from your
competition?
What is your competition
doing better, the same or
worse than you and where
is the gap?
Piezoelectric plates and woven fabrics for farmyards/animals
Describe your
product to be
developed.

Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid
materials—such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as
bone, DNA, and various proteins—in response to applied mechanical stress
(Skoog, D. A., Holler, F. J., & Crouch, S. R., 2007).

Researchers have developed fabrics and plates that when stretched or bent
generate electricity.

The practical application has two limits. Limited output: 3 kilos of the material
only produces 4 microwatts, enough power to intermittently power an LED
(Montalbano, 2018). To increase output is to increase weight. Limited scope:
most fabric applications focus on human use BUT what if we applied the
technology to farmyards/animals?

1.5 billion cows, 1.2 billion sheep, 1.1 billion goats, 21.8 billion chickens, 58.8
million horses, 10 million mules, 985 million pigs, 462 million turkeys, 42
million asses = 28,155,000,000 animals farmed worldwide (chickens can’t carry
much weight but 21.8 billion microwatts would add up) (Our World in Data).

The fabric can scale for mass construction at a cost that is comparable to the
price of the material Gore-Tex, which is already used for active and outdoor
wear. (Montalbano, 2018).

Piezoelectric fabrics that not only continue to function when in contact with
water but show enhanced performance (Lund, A., et al., 2018).
Describe your product to be developed.
Piezoelectric woven fabrics for farmyards/animals

The product would be piezoelectric fabrics designed for animals and ceramic piezoelectric plates for high-traffic areas in the farmyard.

Why animals and is it ethical to use animals in this way?
• Our team goal was to ask how we can bring power to rural areas with little to no infrastructure. The team research showed that we need a
low-cost, low-infrastructure requirement solution that can be deployed as point solutions due to the nature of rural environments.

Why animals? We needed to identify a resource available to rural areas; animals seemed like a common resource required to live in poor
rural areas.

Is it ethical to exploit animals in this way? As these animals are mainly farmed for their meat to feed the community we do not think the
additional burden of a light weight fabric to be unreasonable and it is hoped that if energy production can be seen as a reason to keep the
animals alive maybe fewer animals will be harvested for their meat.

The product is a customizable kit depending on the farm layout and animals raised. The fabric is lightweight, water resistant, and rugged
enough to perform well in farm yard conditions.

These “energy vests” can recharge batteries used to power a home battery device that provides low-cost, easy-to-operate, clean renewable
energy charged from the motion of your farm animals
How is your product
future-oriented?

An estimated 760 million of our fellow humans do not have access
to electricity. Even minimal access would provide a massive
increase in the standard of living and quality of life for these people

Take for example the energy requirements for common household
items:
• Ceiling fan 75 watts, LED lights 10 watts, Cell phone charger 5
watts, Refrigerator 180 watts, Radio 2 watts, Laptop 60 watts
( Electrical Usage Calculator )

Total 332 watts

332 watts would drastically change the lives of these people.
Imagine what we could do for the lives of people who may live in
rural areas of the world without AC or heaters or stoves but with
only minimal power of 332 watts they could have fans, lights, cell
phone chargers, a laptop, a radio, and refrigeration! What can be
accomplished with basic amenities and access to the wider world?

In 1998 4.33 billion people had access to electricity and 1.63 billion
did not, by 2019 6.91 billion had access and 760 million did not; in
21 years we have added 2.58 billion to power but only decrease
those without by 870 million. You can see in the chart below not
much progress has been made.
HOW IS
YOUR
PRODUCT
FUTUREORIENTED?
How is your product future-oriented?
• Look at the life expectancy and extreme
poverty axis of this graph. Africa and
parts of Asia are being left behind as the
world advances. We don’t just lose the life
of those individuals which is bad enough
but we lose their ideas and dreams. We
are losing time – time humanity may not
have – we lose the combined value of all
of their contributions to our
understanding of the world. We must
bring access to electricity to these parts
of the world. Failure to do so may well be
at our own peril.
How does your product relate to the market?
• Energy poverty products are typically developed and sold by private companies that are seeking to meet the
demand for affordable and reliable energy solutions in areas where traditional energy infrastructure is
lacking.
• The availability and affordability of energy-poverty products can be influenced by market factors such as
supply chain logistics, manufacturing costs, and competition.
• The cost of renewable energy products may decrease due to improvements in manufacturing technology and
economies of scale, making them more affordable for customers in developing countries.
• Consumer preferences for affordable, dependable, and simple-to-use energy solutions can have an impact on
the types of products that are produced and offered for sale, which in turn shapes the market for items
addressing energy poverty
• Government incentives and policies can help shape the market for solutions that address energy poverty by
encouraging innovation and investment in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation.
• As technology advances, costs come down, and the need for clean energy solutions becomes more widely
recognized, the market for goods that address energy poverty is changing quickly.
Describe your
competition.

The piezoelectricity technology market is focusing mainly on three areas: human
wearable devices, structural vibration harvesting and mechanical vibration
harvesting.

Human wearable devices
• Our backpacks and workout clothes potentially have a new way to provide
mobile power thanks to a team of researchers at Chalmers University of
Technology, in collaboration with the Swedish School of Textiles in Sweden
(Montalbano, E., 2018).

Mechanical vibration harvesting
• Energies generated by industrial machinery, vehicles during transportation,
structures, natural sources, human activities, and movement of body organs can
be captured and converted into useful electric power without affecting the
original source (Sezer, N., & Koç, M., 2021).

Structural vibration harvesting
• To enable the piezoelectric effect, piezoelectric materials are usually attached to
mechanical structures(e.g. flexible beams) that can deform due to mechanical
vibration and produce strain in piezoelectric material (Liang, H., Hao, G., &
Olszewski, O. Z., 2021).
As such those companies who have established wearable fabrics are placed for direct
competition
The unique customer value we provide is off-grid
renewable energy access to remote and rural users who
own a farm or have animals.
Unique
selling
proposition
Our customer base are those remote and rural
communities with little to no access to the traditional
energy grid and who do not have the money to invest in
solar or wind infrastructure.
Our low-cost, easy-to-attach energy vests for animals
allow customers to use the motion of animals to recharge
batteries
What makes you
stand apart from
your competition?
Off-grid energy companies focus either on solar, wind, or
biomass energy reclamation as such we have a unique
position in focusing on animal motion for energy
generation
When it comes to farm energy use most of the attention
is on energy conservation and efficiency, we add a third
proposition to farm energy discussion in using farms to
generate electricity without large investments
Those companies in the wearable piezoelectric space are
targeting human apparel and as we target animals we
stand apart from fashions and trends
• The largest gap we see is in those businesses focusing
What is your
competition doing
better, the same, or
worse than you, and
where is the gap?
on wearable piezoelectric apparel. They have
experienced manufacturers and access to piezoelectric
fibers that we will need to produce our energy vests.
The contracts they have in place could limit our ability
to access these resources and manufacturers.
• They also have design and test facilities and processes
that we will need to develop and perfect to a rugged
standard for animal use.
Bibliography

González-Eguino, M. (2015). Energy poverty: An overview. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 47, 377-385.

Lewrick, M., Link, P., & Leifer, L. (2020). The design thinking toolbox: A guide to mastering the most popular and valuable innovation methods. John
Wiley & Sons.

Design Council. (2010). The design process: AEIOU. Retrieved from https://www.designcouncil.org.uk/news-opinion/design-process-aeiou

Nussbaum, B. (2018). Design thinking is fundamentally conservative and preserves the status quo. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from
https://hbr.org/2018/09/design-thinking-is-fundamentally-conservative-and-preserves-the-status-quo

Brown, T., & Katz, B. (2011). Change by design: How design thinking transforms organizations and inspires innovation. HarperCollins.

Saffer, D., & Cooper, A. (2018). Designing for Interaction: Creating Smart Applications and Clever Devices (3rd ed.). New Riders.

Mirzaei, M., Jeon, H. G., & Hwang, J. (2018). User-centered design of a smart floor energy harvesting system for indoor applications. Energies, 11(6),
1476. doi: 10.3390/en11061476

Alahmadi, H. A., Khan, M. S., & Alarifi, A. (2020). Footstep energy harvesting: A feasibility study in a shopping mall. Energies, 13(20), 5242. doi:
10.3390/en13205242

Hwang, J., Jeon, H.G., & Mirzaei, M. (2019). Smart floor energy harvesting: A comprehensive review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 111,
24-39. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2019.05.049)

Kim, W. C., & Mauborgne, R. (2005). Blue ocean strategy: From theory to practice. California Management Review, 47(3), 105-121.

Skoog, D. A., Holler, F. J., & Crouch, S. R. (2007). Instrumental analysis (Vol. 47). Belmont: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Montalbano, E. (2018, April 5). This Flexible, Piezoelectric Fabric Turns Kinetic Energy Into Electricity. Designnews.com. Retrieved March 29, 2023,
from https://www.designnews.com/materials-assembly/flexible-piezoelectric-fabric-turns-kinetic-energy-electricity

Livestock counts, World, 1890 to 2014. Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/livestock-counts?tab=table&time=1890..latest

Sezer, N., & Koç, M. (2021). A comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art of piezoelectric energy harvesting. Nano Energy, 80, 105567.

Liang, H., Hao, G., & Olszewski, O. Z. (2021). A review on vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesting from the aspect of compliant mechanisms. Sensors
and Actuators A: Physical, 331, 112743.

Lund, A., Rundqvist, K., Nilsson, E., Yu, L., Hagström, B., & Müller, C. (2018, March 22). Energy harvesting textiles for a rainy day: Woven
piezoelectrics based on melt-spun PVDF microfibres with a conducting core. Nature.com. Retrieved March 30, 2023, from
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41528-018-0022-4

Calculate Electricity Usage. Energy Use Calculator. Retrieved March 31, 2023, from https://energyusecalculator.com/calculate_electrical_usage.htm

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